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a 



cK '-y 




HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



FA-HIEN'S RECORD 



OF 



BUDDHISTIC KINGDOMS 



LEGGE 



HENRY FROWDE 




OXPOKD Univbrsitt Frcss Warbhousb 
Amen Cokhkr, E.C. 






D 






S >"^ 



^1^ 






u3 



MM 




VI. THE DEVAS CELEBRATING THE ATTAINMENT OF THE BUDDHASHIP. Ch. 31. 



A 



RECORD OF .BUDDHISTIC KINGDOMS 



BEING AN ACCOUNT BY 



THE CHINESE MONK FA-HIEN 



OF 



HIS TRAVELS IN INDIA AND CEYLON 

(A.D. 399-414) 

IN SEARCH OF THE BUDDHIST BOOKS OF DISCIPLINE 



TRANSLATED AND ANNOTATED 
WITH A CORE AN RECENSION OF THE CHINESE TEXT 

BY 

JAMES LEGGE, M.A., LL.D. 

PROFESSOR OF THE CHINESE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 



©rfom 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 



1886 ,, 



[ All rights rtstrved ] 



C-r«SL XC>C2>' S 




CONTENTS. 



■ M 

PACK 

PREFACE xi 

INTRODUCTION. 

LiFB OF FA-hien; genuineness and integrity of the text of his 
narrative; number of the adherents of Buddhism . . . i 

CHAPTER L 
From Ch'ang-gan to the Sandy Desert 9 

CHAPTER II. 
On to Shen-shen and thence to Khoten la 

CHAPTER III. 
Khoten. Processions of images. The king's New monastery . . i6 

CHAPTER IV. 

Through the TS'ung or * Onion ' mountains to K'eeh-ch*A ; probably 
Skardo, or some city more to the East in Ladak. . . .21 

CHAPTER V. 

Great quinquennial assembly of monks. Relics of Buddha. Pro- 
ductions OF THE COUNTRY 32 

CHAPTER VI. 
On towards North India. Darada. Image of Maitreya Bodhisattva . 24 

CHAPTER VII. 

Crossing of the Indus. When Buddhism first crossed that river 
for the East 26 



vi CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

CHAPTER VIII. 

WOO-CHANG, OR UDYANA. MONASTERIES AND THEIR WAYS. TRACES OF 

Buddha 28 

CHAPTER IX. 
Soo-HO-TO. Legend of Buddha 30 

CHAPTER X. 
GandhAra. Legends of Buddha 31 

CHAPTER XI. 
Taksha^ilA. Legends. The four great topes 32 

CHAPTER XII. 

Purushapura, or PeshAwur. Prophecy about king Kanishka and 
his tope. Buddha's alms-bowl. Death of Hwuy-ying ... 33 

CHAPTER XIII. 

NagAra. Festival of Buddha's skull-bone. Other relics, and his 

SHADOW 36 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Death of Hwuy-king in the Little Snowy mountains. Lo-e. Pohna. 
Crossing the Indus to the East 40 

CHAPTER XV. 
Bhida. Sympathy of monks with the pilgrims 41 

CHAPTER XVI. 

On to MathurA, or Muttra. Condition and customs of Central 
India ; of the monks, vihAras, and monasteries .... 42 

CHAPTER XVII. 

SankA^ya. Buddha's ascent to and descent from the Trayastrii^Sas 
heaven, and other legends 47 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
KanyAkubja, or Canouge. Buddha's preaching 53 

CHAPTER XIX. 
ShA-che. Legend of Buddha's Danta-kAshtha 54 



CONTENTS. vii 

PACE 

CHAPTER XX. 

KO^ALA AND ^rAvaST!. THE JETAVANA VIHARA AND OTHER MEMORIALS AND 

LEGENDS OF BUDDHA. SYMPATHY OF THE MONKS WITH THE PILGRIMS. 5$ 

CHAPTER XXI. 
The three predecessors of ^Akyamuni in the Buddhaship . . 63 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Kapilavastu. Its desolation. Legends of Buddha's birth, and other 
incidents in connexion with it 64 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Rama, and its tope 68 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Where Buddha finally renounced the world, and where he died . 70 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Vai^alI. The tope called 'Weapons laid down.' The Council of 
Vai^alI 72 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
Remarkable death of Ananda 75 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Pataliputtra, or Patna, in Magadha. King A^kVs spirit-built 
palace and halls. The Buddhist Brahman, RAdhasAmi. Dis- 
pensaries AND HOSPITALS 77 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
RAjAG^iHA, New and Old. Legends and inqdents connected with it . 80 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

G^idhra-kCta hill, and legends. FA-hien passes a night on it. His 
reflections 82 

CHAPTER XXX. 

The ^rataparna cave, or cave of the First Council. Legends. 
Suicide of a Bhikshu 84 



vlii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
GayA. 6Akyamuni*s attaining to the Buddhaship ; and other legends . 87 

CHAPTER XXXII. 
Legend of king Ai^oka in a former birth, and his naraka . . 90 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
Mount Gurupada, where KaSyapa Buddha's entire skeleton is • 92 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 
On the way back to Patna. VARANAst, or BenAres. 6Akyamuni*s 

FIRST DOINGS AFTER BECOMING BUDDHA 93 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

DaKSHI^A, and the pigeon MONASTERY 96 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

In Patna. FA-hien*s labours in transcription of manuscripts, and 
Indian studies for three years 98 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

To ChampA and TAmauptI. Stay and labours there for three 
YEARS. Takes ship to Singhala, or Ceylon . . . • .100 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

At Ceylon. Rise of the kingdom. Feats of Buddha. Topes and 
monasteries. Statue of Buddha in jade. Bo tree. Festival of 
Buddha's tooth loi 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 
Cremation of an ArhXt. Sermon of a devotee 107 

CHAPTER XL. 
After two years takes ship for China. Disastrous passage to Java ; 

AND thence to CHINA ; ARRIVES AT SHAN-TUNG ; AND GOES TO 

Nanking. Conclusion or l'envoi by another writer . . .111 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, &c. 

Sketch map of FA-hien's travels . , . To face Introduction, page i 

I. 

Dream of Buddha's mother of his incarnation ... 71; face p. 65 

II. 

Buddha just born, with the nAgas supplying water to 

WASH HIM To fcu:e p, 67 

Buddha tossing the white elephant over the wall . . To face p, 66 

IV. 

Buddha in soutude and enduring austerities . , , To face p. 87 

V. 

Buddhaship attained To face p. 88 

VI. 

The devas celebrating the attainment of the Buddhaship . To face the Title 

VII. 

Buddha's dying instructions To face p, 70 

VIII. 

Buddha's death To follow V\\ 

IX. 

Division of Buddha's reucs TofollowVWl 



*a 



PREFACE. 



Several times during my long residence in Hong Kong I endeavoured 
to read through the * Narrative of F4-hien ;' but though interested with the 
graphic details of much of the work, its columns bristled so constantly — 
now with his phonetic representations of Sanskrit words, and now with 
his substitution for them of their meanings in Chinese characters, and I 
was, moreover, so much occupied with my own special labours on the 
Confucian Classics, that my success was far from satisfactory. When 
Dr. Eitel's * Handbook for the Student of Chinese Buddhism * appeared 
in 1870, the difficulty occasioned by the Sanskrit words and names was 
removed, but the other difficulty remained ; and I was not able to look 
into the book again for several years. Nor had I much inducement to 
do so in the two copies of it which I had been able to procure, on poor 
paper, and printed from blocks badly cut at first, and so worn with use 
as to yield books the reverse of attractive in their appearance to the 
student. 

In the meantime I kept studying the subject of Buddhism from 
various sources; and in 1878 began to lecture, here in Oxford, on the 
Travels with my Davis Chinese scholar^ who was at the same time Boden 
Sanskrit scholar. As we went on, I wrote out a translation in English 
for my own satisfaction of nearly half the narrative. In the beginning 
of last year I made F4-hien again the subject of lecture, wrote out a 
second translation, independent of the former, and pushed on till I had 
completed the whole. 

The want of a good and clear text had been supplied by my friend, 



* a a 



xii PREFACE. 

Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio, who sent to me from Japan a copy, the text of 
which is appended to the translation and notes, and. of the nature of 
which some account is given in the Introduction (page 4), and towards 
the end of this Preface. 

The present work consists of three parts : the Translation of F4-hien's 
Narrative of his Travels ; copious Notes ; and the Chinese Text of my 
copy from Japan. 

It is for the Translation that I hold myself more especially respon- 
sible. Portions of it were written out three times, and the whole of it 
twice. While preparing my own version I made frequent reference to 
previous translations : — those of M. Abel R^musat, * Revu, compl^t^, et 
augment^ d'^claircissements nouveaux par MM. Klaproth et Landresse* 
(Paris, 1836) ; of the Rev. Samuel Beal (London, 1869), and his revision of 
it, prefixed to his * Buddhist Records of the Western World ' (Triibner's 
Oriental Series, 1884) ; and of Mr. Herbert A. Giles, of H. M.'s Consular 
Service in China (1877). To these I have to add a series of articles on 
'Fa-hsien and his English Translators,' by Mr. T. Watters, British 
Consul at 1-Chang (China Review, 1879, 1880). Those articles are 
of the highest value, displaying accuracy of Chinese scholarship and an 
extensive knowledge of Buddhism. I have regretted that Mr. Watters, 
while reviewing others, did not himself write out and publish a version 
of the whole of Fd-hien's narrative. If he had done so, I should pro- 
bably have thought that, on the whole, nothing more remained to be 
done for the distinguished Chinese pilgrim in the way of translation. 
Mr. Watters had to judge of the comparative merits of the versions of 
Beal and Giles, and pronounce on the many points of contention between 
them. I have endeavoured to eschew those matters, and have seldom 
made remarks of a critical nature in defence of renderings of my own. 

The Chinese narrative runs on without any break. It was Klaproth 
who divided R^musat's translation into forty chapters. The division 
is helpful to the reader, and I have followed it excepting in three or 
four instances. In the reprinted Chinese text the chapters are separated 
by a circle (O) in the column. 

In transliterating the names of Chinese characters I have generally 



PREFACE:. xiii 

followed the spelling of Morrison rather than the Pekinese, which is 
now in vogue. We cannot tell exactly what the pronunciation of them 
was, about fifteen hundred years ago, in the time of F4-hien ; but the 
southern mandarin must be a shade nearer to it than that of Peking at 
the present day. In transliterating the Indian names I have for the 
most part followed Dr. Eitel, with such modification as seemed good 
and in harmony with growing usage. 

For the Notes I can do little more than claim the merit of selection and 
condensation. My first object in them was to explain what in the text 
required explanation to an English reader. All Chinese texts, and 
Buddhist texts especially, are new to foreign students. One has to do 
for them what many hundreds of the ablest scholars in Europe have 
done for the Greek and Latin Classics during several hundred years, and 
what the thousands of critics and commentators have been doing for our 
Sacred Scriptures for nearly eighteen centuries. There are few pre- 
decessors in the field of Chinese literature into whose labours translators 
of the present century can enter. This will be received, I hope, as a 
sufficient apology for the minuteness and length of some of the notes. 
A second object in them was to teach myself first, and then 
others, something of the history and doctrines of Buddhism. I have 
thought that they might be learned better in connexion with a lively 
narrative like that of F4-hien than by reading didactic descriptions and 
argumentative books. Such has been my own experience. The books 
which I have consulted for these notes have been many, besides Chinese 
works. My principal help has been the full and masterly handbook of 
Eitel, mentioned already, and often referred to as E. H. Spence Hardy's 
• Eastern Monachism ' (E. M.) and * Manual of Buddhism * (M. B.) have 
been constantly in hand, as well as Rhys Davids' Buddhism, published by 
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, his Hibbert Lectures, and 
his Buddhist Suttas in the Sacred Books of the East, and other writings. 
I need not mention other authorities, having endeavoured always to 
specify them where I make use of them. My proximity and access to 
the Bodleian Library and the Indian Institute have been of great 
advantage. 



xiv PREFACE. 

• 

I may be allowed to say that, so far as my own study of it has gone, 
I think there are many things in the vast field of Buddhistic literature 
which still require to be carefully handled. How far, for instance, are 
we entitled to regard the present Sfltras as genuine and sufficiently 
accurate copies of those which were accepted by the Councils before our 
Christian era ? Can anything be done to trace the rise of the legends 
and marvels of Sdkyamuni's history, which were current so early (as it 
seems to us) as the time of F4-hien, and which startle us so frequently 
by similarities between them and narratives in our Gospels ? Dr. Her- 
mann Oldenberg, certainly a great authority on Buddhistic subjects, 
says that * a biography of Buddha has not come down to us from ancient 
times, from the age of the P41i texts ; and, we can safely say, no such 
biography existed then' (* Buddha — His Life, His Doctrine, His Order,* 
as translated by Hoey, p. 78). He has also (in the same work, pp. 99, 
416,417) come to the conclusion that the hitherto unchallenged tradition 
that the Buddha was * a king's son * must be given up. The name, 
* king's son ' (in Chinese ^ •^), always used of the Buddha, certainly 
requires to be understood in the highest sense. I am content myself to 
wait for further information on these and other points, as the result of 
prolonged and careful research. 

Dr. Rhys Davids has kindly read the proofs of the Translation and 
Notes, and I most cordially thank him for doing so, for his many 
valuable corrections in the Notes, and for other suggestions which I have 
received from him. I may not always think on various points exactly 
as he does, but I am not more forward than he is to say with Horace, — 

' Nulliua addictus jurare in verba magistri.' 

I have referred above, and also in the Introduction, to the Corean 
text of F4-hien's narrative, which I received from Mr. Nanjio. It is 
on the whole so much superior to the better-known texts, that I deter- 
mined to attempt to reproduce it at the end of the little volume, so 
far as our resources here in Oxford would permit. To do so has not 
been an easy task. The two fonts of Chinese types in the Clarendon 
Press were prepared primarily for printing the translation of our Sacred 



PREFACE, XV 

Scriptures, and then extended so as to be available for printing also the 
Confucian Classics; but a Buddhist work necessarily requires many 
types not found in them, while many other characters in the Corean 
recension are peculiar in their forms, and some are what Chinese diction- 
aries denominate * vulgar.' That we have succeeded so well as we have 
done is owing chiefly to the intelligence, ingenuity, and untiring atten- 
tion of Mr. J. C. Pembrey, the Oriental Reader. 

The pictures that have been introduced were taken from a superb 
edition of a History of Buddha, republished recently at Hang-ch4u in 
Cheh-kiang, and profusely illustrated in the best style of Chinese art. 
I am indebted for the use of it to the Rev. J. H. Sedgwick, University 
Chinese Scholar. 



JAMES LEGGE. 



Oxford : 
June, 1886. 



)TE ON THE SKETCH-MAP. 

: accompanying Sketch- Map, taken in 

uon with the notes on 'the different 

in the Narrative, will give the reader 

:iently accurate knowledge of Fi-hien's 



re is no difficulty in laying it down 
e crossed the Indus from east to west 
le Punjab, all the principal places, at 
he touched or rested, having been de- 
ed by Cunningham and other Indian 
iphers and archaeologists. Most of the 

from Ch*ang-an to Bannu have also 
dentified. Woo-e has been put down as 
lutcha, or Kuldja, in 43* 25' N., 8i' 15'E. 
:ountry of K'ieh-ch'a was probably 
, but 1 am inclined to think that the 
where the traveller crossed the Indus 
itered it must have been £&rther east 
Ikardo. A doubt is intimated on page 
to the identification of To-leih with 
a, but Greenough's 'Physical and 
^ical Sketch-Map of British India' 

' Dardu Proper,' all lying on the east 

Indus, exactly in the position where 
arrative would lead us to place it 
K>int at which Fi-hien recrossed the 

into Udy^a on the west of it is 
wn. Takshaiil^ which he visited, was 
ubt on the west of the river, and has 
incorrectly accepted as the Taxila of 
I in the Punj&b. It should be written 
la^iHl, of which the Chinese phonetisa- 
vill allow;— see a note of Beal in his 
Ihist Records of the Western World,' 

must suppose that F4-hien went on 
Nan-king to Ch'ang-an, but the Narra- 
oes not record the hud of his doing so. 



TEXT OF 
mXSM. 

addition 

I have 

cs/ com- 

arvellous 

•3-14^4), 
d all in 

.t within 

of Wfl. 
iment ia 
en they 
. to the 
oianera, 
danger- 
oon got 

lidering 
him to 
.*Idid 
>ecause 
is why 
•e over 



INTRODUCTION. 

LIFE OF FA-HIEN; GENUINENESS AND INTEGRITY OF THE TEXT OF 
HIS NARRATIVE ; NUMBER OF THE ADHERENTS OF BUDDHISM. 

I. Nothing of great importance is known about Fd-hien in addition 
to what may be gathered from his own record of his travels. I have 
read the accounts of him in the * Memoirs of Eminent Monks/ com- 
piled in A. D. 519, and a later work, the * Memoirs of Marvellous 
Monks,' by the third emperor of the Ming dynasty (a. D. 1403-1424), 
which, however, is nearly all borrowed from the other; and all in 
them that has an appearance of verisimilitude can be brought within 
brief compass. 

His surname, they tell us, was Kung S and he was a native of Wfl- 
yang^ in P'lng-yang*, which is still the name of a large department in 
Shan-hst. He had three brothers older than himself; but when they 
all died before shedding their first teeth, his father devoted him to the 
service of the Buddhist society, and had him entered as a Sr4manera, 
still keeping him at home in the family. The little fellow fell danger- 
ously ill, and the father sent him to the monastery, where he soon got 
well and refused to return to his parents. 

When he was ten years old, his father died ; and an uncle, considering 
the widowed solitariness and helplessness of the mother, urged him to 
renounce the monastic life, and return to her, but the boy replied, * I did 
not quit the family in compliance with my father's wishes, but because 
I wished to be far from the dust and vulgar ways of life. This is why 
I choose monkhood.' The uncle approved of his words and gave over 



2 THE TRA VELS OF fA-HIEN. 

urging him. When his mother also died, it appeared how great had 
been the affection for her of his line nature; but after her burial he 
returned to the monastery. 

On one occasion he was cutting rice with a score or two of his fellow- 
disciples, when some hungry thieves came upon them to take away their 
grain by force. The other SrAmaneras all fled, but our young hero 
stood his ground, and said to the thieves, * If you must have the grain, 
take what you please. But, Sirs, it was your former neglect of charity 
which brought you to your present state of destitution ; and now, 
again, you wish to rob others. I am afraid that in the coming ages 
you will have still greater poverty and distress ; — I am sorry for you 
beforehand.' With these words he followed his companions to the 
monastery, while the thieves left the grain and went away, all the 
monks, of whom there were several hundred, doing homage to his 
conduct and courage. 

When he had finished his noviciate and taken on him the obligations 
of the full Buddhist orders, his earnest courage, clear intelligence, and 
strict regulation of his demeanour were conspicuous ; and soon after, he 
undertook his journey to India in search of complete copies of the 
Vinaya-pitaka. What follows this is merely an account of his 
travels in India and return to China by sea, condensed from his own 
'^ narrative, with the addition of some marvellous incidents that happened 
to him, on his visit to the Vulture Peak near Rdjagriha. 

It is said in the end that after his return to China, he went to the capital 
(evidently Nanking), and there, along with the Indian Sramana Buddha- 
bhadra, executed translations of some of the works which he had 
obtained in India ; and that before he had done all that he wished to 
do in this way, he removed to King-chow^ (in the present Hoo-pih), 
and died in the monastery of Sin, at the age of eighty-eight, to the 
great sorrow of all who knew him. It is added that there is another 
larger work giving an account of his travels in various countries. 

Such is all the information given about our author, beyond what he 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

has himself told us. F4-hien was his clerical name, and means * Illus- 
trious in the Law,' or * Illustrious master of the Law.' The Shih which 
often precedes it is an abbreviation of the name of Buddha as S4kya- 
muni, ' the Sdkya, mighty in Love, dwelling in Seclusion and Silence,' 
and may be taken as equivalent to Buddhist. He is sometimes said to 
have belonged to 'the eastern Tsin dynasty' (a.d. 317-419), and some- 
times to * the Sung,' that is, the Sung dynasty of the House of Lift (a.d. 
420-478). If he became a full monk at the age of twenty, and went to 
India when he was twenty-five, his long life may have been divided 
pretty equally between the two dynasties. 

2. If there were ever another and larger account of Fd-hien*s travels 
than the narrative of which a translation is now given, it has long ceased 
to be in existence. 

In the Catalogue of the imperial library of the Suy dynasty (a.d. 589^ 
618), the name F4-hien occurs four times. Towards the end of the last 
section of it (page 22), after a reference to his travels, his labours in 
translation at Kin-ling (another name for Nanking), in conjunction with 
Buddha-bhadra, are described. In the second section, page 15, we find 
*A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms;' — with a note, saying that it 
was the work of *the Sramana, Fd-hien;' and again, on page 13, we 
have * Narrative of F4-hien in two Books,' and * Narrative of Fi-hien's 
Travels in one Book.' But all these three entries may possibly belong 
to different copies of the same work, the first and the other two being 
in separate subdivisions of the Catalogue. 

In the two Chinese copies of the narrative in my possession the 
title is * Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms.' In the Japanese or Corean 
recension subjoined to this translation, the title is twofold ; first, * Narrative 
of the Distinguished Monk, F4-hien ;' and then, more at lat^e, * Incidents 
of Travels in India, by the l^ramana of the Eastern Tsin, FS-hien, 
recorded by himself.' 

There is still earlier attestation of the existence of our little work than 
the Suy Catalogfue. The Catalogue Raisonn6 of the imperial library 
of the present dynasty (chap. 71) mentions two quotations from it by 
Le TAo-yiien, a geographical writer of the dynasty of the Northern Wei 

b 2 



4 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN, 

(a.d. 386-584), one of them containing 89 characters, and the other 276; 
both of them given as from the * Narrative of F4-hien/ 

In all catalogues subsequent to that of Suy our work appears. 
The evidence for its authenticity and genuineness is all that could 
be required. It is clear to myself that the 'Record of Buddhistic 
Kingdoms' and the 'Narrative of his Travels by F4-hien' were desig- 
nations of one and the same work, and that it is doubtful whether any 
larger work on the same subject was ever current With regard to 
the text subjoined to my translation, it was published in Japan in 
1779. The editor had before him four recensions of the narrative; 
those of the Sung and Ming dynasties, with appendixes on the names of 
certain characters in them ; that of Japan ; and that of Corea. He wisely 
adopted the Corean text, published in accordance with a royal rescript 
in 1726, so far as I can make out ; but the different readings of the other 
texts are all given in top-notes, instead of foot-notes as with us, this 
being one of the points in which customs in the east and west go by 
contraries. Very occasionally, the editor indicates by a single character, 
equivalent to * right ' or * wrong,* which reading in his opinion is to be 
preferred. In the notes to the present republication of the Corean 
text, S stands for Sung, M for Ming, and J for Japanese ; R for right, 
and W for wrong. I have taken the trouble to give all the various 
readings (amounting to more than 300), partly as a curiosity and to 
make my text complete, and partly to show how, in the transcription of 
writings in whatever language, such variations are sure to occur, 

' maculae, quas aut incuria fudit, 

Aut humana panim cavit natura,' 

while on the whole they very slightly affect the meaning of the document. 
The editors of the Catalogue Raisonn^ intimate their doubts of the 
good taste and reliability of all F4-hien's statements. It offends them 
that he should call central India the 'Middle Kingdom,' and China, 
which to them was the true and only Middle Kingdom, but * a Border 
land;* — it offends them as the vaunting language of a Buddhist writer, 
whereas the reader will see in the expressions only an instance of what 
F4-hien calls his * simple straightforwardness.* 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

As an instance of his unreliability they refer to his account of the 
Buddhism of Khoten, whereas it is well known, they say, that the 
Khoteners from ancient times till now have been Mohammedans ; — as 
if they could have been so 170 years before Mohammed was born, and 
%%% years before the year of the Hegiral And this is criticism in China. 
The Catalogue was ordered by the K*ien-lung emperor in 1722. 
Between three and four hundred of the * Great Scholars ' of the empire 
were engaged on it in various departments, and thus egregiously igno- 
rant did they show themselves of all beyond the limits of their own 
country, and even of the literature of that country itself. 

Much of what Fd-hien tells his readers of Buddhist miracles and 
legends is indeed unreliable and grotesque ; but we have from him the 
truth as to what he saw and heard. 

3. In concluding this introduction I wish to call attention to some 
estimates of the number of Buddhists in the world which have become 
current, believing, as I do, that the smallest of them is much above what 
is correct. 

i. In a note on the first page of his work on the Bhilsa Topes (1854), 
General Cunningham says : * The Christians number about 270 millions; 
the Buddhists about 222 millions, who are distributed as follows : — China 
170 millions, Japan 25, Anam 14, Siam 3, Ava 8, Nepdl i, and Ceylon i ; 
total, 222 millions.' 

ii. In his article on M. J. Barth^lemy Saint Hilaire's *Le Bouddha et 
sa Religion,' republished in his * Chips from a German Workshop,' vol. i. 
(1868), Professor Max Miiller (p. 215) says, *The young prince became 
the founder of a religion which, after more than two thousand years, is 
still professed by 455 millions of human beings/ and he appends the 
following note : * Though truth is not settled by majorities, it would be 
interesting to know which religion counts at the present moment the 
largest numbers of believers. Berghaus, in his " Physical Atlas," gives the 
following division of the human race according to religion : — " Buddhists 
31.2 per cent, Christians 30.7, Mohammedans 15.7, Brahmanists 13.4, 
Heathens 8.7, and Jews 0.3." As Berghaus does not distinguish the 
Buddhists in China from the followers of Confucius and Laotse, the first 



6 THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

place on the scale belongs really to Christianity. It is difficult in 
China to say to what religion a man belongs, as the same person may 
profess two or three. The emperor himself, after sacrificing according to 
the ritual of Confucius, visits a Tao-ss6 temple, and afterwards bows 
before an image of Fo in a Buddhist chapel. (" Melanges Asiatiques 
de St. P6tersbourg," vol. ii. p. 374.) ' 

iii. Both these estimates are exceeded by Dr. T. W. Rhys Davids 
(intimating also the uncertainty of the statements, and that numbers are 
no evidence of truth) in the introduction to his * Manual of Buddhism.' 
The Buddhists there appear as amounting in all to 500 millions : — 
30 millions of Southern Buddhists, in Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Anam, 
and India (Jains); and 470 millions of Northern Buddhists, of whom 
nearly 33 millions are assigned to Japan, and 414,686,974 to the 
eighteen provinces of China proper. According to him, Christians 
amount to about a6 per cent of mankind, Hindus to about 13, 
Mohammedans to about \%\^ Buddhists to about 40, and Jews to 
about i. 

In regard to all these estimates, it will be observed that the immense 
numbers assigned to Buddhism are made out by the multitude of 
Chinese with which it is credited. Subtract Cunningham's 170 millions 
of Chinese from his total of 22a, and there remains only 52 millions of 
Buddhists. Subtract Davids' (say) 4144 millions of Chinese from his 
total of 500, and there remain only 85i millions for Buddhism. Of the 
numbers assigned to other countries, as well as of their whole populations, 
I am in considerable doubt, excepting in the cases of Ceylon and India ; 
but the greatness of the estimates turns upon the immense multitudes 
said to be in China. I do not know what total population Cunningham 
allowed for that country, nor on what principle he allotted 170 millions of 
it to Buddhism ; — perhaps he halved his estimate of the whole, whereas 
Berghaus and Davids allotted to it the highest estimates that have been 
given of the people. 

But we have no certain information of the population of China. At 
an interview with the former Chinese ambassador, Kwo Sung-t4o, in 
Paris, in 1878, 1 begged him to write out for me the amount, with the 



INTRODUCTION. ^ 

authority for it, and he assured me that it could not be done. I have 
read probably almost everything that has been published on the subject, 
and endeavoured by methods of my own to arrive at a satisfactory 
conclusion ; — without reaching a result which I can venture to lay before 
the public. My impression has been that 400 millions is hardly an 
exaggeration. 

But supposing that we had reliable returns of the whole population, 
how shall we proceed to apportion that among Confucianists, Tdoists, 
and Buddhists ? Confucianism is the orthodoxy of China. The common 
name for it is J ft Chi do, *the Doctrines held by the Learned Class,' 
entrance into the circle of which is, with a few insignificant exceptions, 
open to all the people. The mass of them and the masses under their 
influence are preponderatingly Confucian ; and in the observance of 
ancestral worship, the most remarkable feature of the religion proper 
of China from the earliest times, of which Confucius was not the author 
but the prophet, an overwhelming majority are regular and assiduous. 

Among * the strange principles' which the emperor of the K'ang-hs! 
period, in one of his famous Sixteen Precepts, exhorted his people to 
' discountenance and put away, in order to exalt the correct doctrine,' 
Buddhism and Tioism were both included. If, as stated in the note 
quoted from Professor Miiller, the emperor countenances both the 
Tdoist worship and the Buddhist, he does so for reasons of state ; — to 
please especially his Buddhistic subjects in Thibet and Mongolia, and 
not to offend the many whose superstitious fancies incline to Tdoism. 

When I went out and in as a missionary among the Chinese people for 
about thirty years, it sometimes occurred to me that only the inmates of 
their monasteries and the recluses of both systems should be enumerated 
as Buddhists and T&oists ; but I was in the end constrained to widen that 
judgment, and to admit a considerable following of both among the 
people, who have neither received the tonsure nor assumed the yellow 
top. Dr. Eitel, in concluding his discussion of this point in his * Lecture 
on Buddhism, an Event in History,' says : * It is not too much to say 
that most Chinese are theoretically Confucianists, but emotionally 
Buddhists or TAoists. But fairness requires us to add that, though the 



8 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

mass of the people are more or less influenced by Buddhist doctrines, 
yet the people, as a whole, have no respect for the Buddhist church, 
and habitually sneer at Buddhist priests.' For the * most' in the former 
of these two sentences I would substitute * nearly all ; ' and between 
my friend's *but' and * emotionally' I would introduce 'many are,' and 
would not care to contest his conclusion farther. It does seem to me 
preposterous to credit Buddhism with the whole of the vast population 
of China, the great majority of whom are Confucianists. My own 
opinion is, that its adherents are not so many as those even of 
Mohammedanism, and that instead of being the most numerous of 
the religions (so called) of the world, it is only entitled to occupy the 
fifth place, ranking below Christianity, Confucianism, Brahmanism, and 
Mohammedanism, and followed, some distance off", by T&oism. To 
make a table of per-centages of mankind, and assign to each system its 
proportion, is to seem to be wise where we are deplorably ignorant ; and, 
moreover, if our means of information were much better than they are, 
our figures would merely show the outward adherence. A fractional 
per-centage might tell more for one system than a very large integral 
one for another. 



THE 

TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN, 

OR 

RECORD OF BUDDHISTIC KINGDOMS. 



CHAPTER I. 

FROM CH'ANG-GAN TO THE SANDY DESERT. 

FA-HIEN had been living in Ch'ang-gan^. Deploring the mutilated 
and imperfect state of the collection of the Books of Discipline, in the 
second year of the period Hwang-che, being the Ke-hde year of the 
cycled he entered into an engagement with Hwuy-king, Tdo-ching, 

^ Ch'ang-gan is still the name of the principal district (and its city) in the 
department of Se-gan, Shen-se. It had been the capital of the first empire 
of Han (b.c. 202-A.D. 24), as it subsequently was that of Suy (a.d. 589-618). 
The empire of the eastern Tsin, towards the close of which Fd-hien lived, had 
its capital at or near Nan-king, and Ch'ang-gan was the capital of the principal of 
the three Ts'in kingdoms, which, with many other minor ones, maintained a semi- 
independence of Tsin, their rulers sometimes even assuming the title of emperor. 

' The period Hwing-che embraced from a.d. 399 to 414, being the greater 
portion of the reign of YSo Hing of the After Ts'in, a powerful prince. He 
adopted HwSUig-che for the style of his reign in 399, and the cyclical name 
of that year was K&ng-tsze. It is not possible at this distance of time to explain, 
if it could be explained, how Fi-hien came to say that Ke-hie was the 
second year of the period. It seems most reasonable to suppose that he set 
out on his pilgrimage in a.d. 399, the cycle name of which was Ke-hde, as ^ ^ 
the second year, instead of — », the first, might easily creep into the text. In the 
' Memoirs of Eminent Monks ' it is said that our author started in the third year 
of the period Lung-gan of the eastern Tsin, which was a.d. 399. 

c 



lo THE TRA VELS OF FA- HI EN. 

Hwuy-ying, and Hwuy-wei^, that they should go to India and seek for 
the Disciplinary Rules ^. 

After starting from Ch'ang-gan, they passed through Lung*, and 
came to the kingdom of K'een-kwei*, where they stopped for the 
summer retreat '^. When that was over, they went forward to the 
kingdom of Now-t'an®, crossed the mountain of Yang-low, and reached 

* These, like FS-hien itself, are all what we might caU 'clerical' names, 
appellations given to the parties as monks or^ramanas. 

' The Buddhist tripitaka or canon consists of three collections, containing, 
according to Eitel (p. 150), doctrinal aphorisms (or statements, purporting 
to be from Buddha himself); works on discipline ; and works on metaphysics :' — 
called sfitra, vinaya, and abhidharma; in Chinese, king (jj^, leiih (^), 
and lun (|^), or texts, laws or rules, and discussions. Dr. Rhys Davids 
objects to the designation of ' metaphysics ' as used of the abhidharma works, 
saying that * they bear much more the relation to ** dharma " which " by-law " 
bears to " law " than that which " metaphysics " bears to " physics " ' (Hibbert 
Lectures, p. 49). However this be, it was about the vinaya works that 
Fi-hien was chiefly concemed. He wanted a good code of the rules for 
the government of ' the Order ' in all its internal and external relations. 

' Lung embraced the western part of Shen-se and the eastern part of 
Kan-siih. The name remains in Lung Chow, in the extreme west of Shen-se. 

* K'een-kwei was the second king of 'the Western Ts*in.' His family 
was of northern or barbarous origin, from the tribe of the Seen-pe, with the 
surname of K'eih-fuh. The first king was Kwo-jin, and received his appoint- 
ment from the sovereign of the chief Ts*in kingdom in 385. He was succeeded 
in 388 by his brother, the K*een-kwei of the text, who was very prosperous in 398, 
and took the title of king of Ts'in. Fi-hien would find him at his capital, 
somewhere in the present department of Lan-chow, Kan-siih. 

^ Under varshds or varshdvasdna (PSli, vassa; Spence Hardy, vass), 
Eitel (p. 163) says: — 'One of the most ancient institutions of Buddhist 
discipline, requiring all ecclesiastics to spend the rainy season in a monastery in 
devotional exercises. Chinese Buddhists naturally substituted the hot season for the 
rainy (from the i6th day of the 5th to the 15th day of the 9th Chinese month).' 

* During the troubled period of the Tsin dynasty, there were ^y^ (usurping) 
Leang sovereignties in the western part of the empire (^ ^). The name 
Leang remains in the department of Leang-chow in the northern part of Kan-siih. 
The 'southern Leang' arose in 397 under a T'iih-fih Wfl-kfl, who was succeeded 



CITANG-GAN TO THE SANDV DESERT. ii 

the emporium of Chang-yih ^ There they found the country so much 
disturbed that travelling on the roads was impossible for them. Its 
king, however, was very attentive to them, kept them (in his capital), 
and acted the part of their dSnapati^ 

Here they met with Che-yen, Hwuy-keen, Sang-shAo, P4o-yun, and 
Sang-king^; and in pleasant association with them, as bound on the 
same journey with themselves, they passed the summer retreat (of that 
year) * together, resuming after it their travelling, and going on to Tun- 
hwang*, (the chief town) in the frontier territory of defence extending for 
about 80 le from east to west, and about 40 from north to south. Their 
company, increased as it had been, halted there for some days more than a 
month, after which F4-hien and his four friends started first in the suite of 
an envoy*, having separated (for a time) from Pdo-yun and his associates. 

in 399 by a brother, Le-luh-koo ; and he again by his brother, the Now-t'an of the 
text, in 402, who was not yet king therefore when Fd-hien and his friends reached 
his capital. How he is represented as being so may be accounted for in various 
wajrs, of which it is not necessary to write. 

* Chang-yih is still the name of a district in ICan-chow department, Kan-suh. 
It is a long way north and west from Lan-chow, and not far from the Great Wall. 
Its king at this time was, probably, Twan-yeh of * the northern Leang.' 

* Ddna is the name for religious charity, the first of the six piramitds, 
or means of attaining to nirvdna; and a ddnapati is 'one who practises dana 
and thereby crosses {j^j the sea of misery.' ' It is given as ' a title of honour to 
all who support the cause of Buddhism by acts of charity, especially to founders 
and patrons of monasteries;' — see Eitel, p. 29. 

* Of these pilgrims with their clerical names, the most distinguished was 
PSo-yun, who translated various Sanskrit works on his return from India, of which 
only one seems to be now existing. He died in 449. See Nanjio's Catalogue 
of the Tripitaka, col. 417. 

* This was the second summer since the pilgrims left Ch'ang-gan. We are 
now therefore, probably, in a. d. 400. 

* Tun-hwang (lat. 39° 40' N.; Ion. 94° 50' E.) is still the name of one of 
the two districts constituting the department of Gan-se, the most western of the 
prefectures of Kan-siih ; beyond the termination of the Great Wall. 

* Who this envoy was, and where he was going, we do not know. The text 
will not admit of any other translation. 

C 2 



I a THE TRA VELS OF FA-HI EN. 

Le H4o^ the prefect of T*un-hwang, had supplied them with the 
means of crossing the desert (before them), in which there are many 
evil demons and hot winds. (Travellers) who encounter them perish all 
to a man. There is not a bird to be seen in the air above, nor an animal 
on the ground below. Though you look all round most earnestly to 
find where you can cross, you know not where to make your choice, 
the only mark and indication being the dry bones of the dead (left upon 
the sand)*. 

CHAPTER II. 

ON TO SHEN-SHEN AND THENCE TO KHOTEN. 

After travelling for seventeen days, a distance we may calculate of 
about 1500 le, (the pilgrims) reached the kingdom of Shen-shen^ a 

* Le Hdo was a native of Lung-se, a man of learning, able and kindly in his 
government. He was appointed govemor or prefect of T'un-hwang by the king 
of *the northern Leang/ in 400; and there he sustained himself, becoming 
by and by * duke of western Leang/ till he died in 417. 

' * The river of sand ; ' the great desert of Kobi or Gobi ; having various 
other names. It was a great task which the pilgrims had now before them, — 
to cross this desert. The name of * river ' in the Chinese misleads the reader, 
and he thinks of the crossing it as of crossing a stream ; but they had to traverse 
it from east to west. In his 'Vocabulary of Proper Names/ p. 23, Dr. Porter 
Smith says : — * It extends from the eastern frontier of Mongolia, south-westward 
to the further frontier of Turkestan, to within six miles of Ilcht, the chief town 
of Khoten. It thus comprises some twenty-three degrees of longitude in length, 
and from three to ten degrees of latitude in breadth, being about 2,100 miles in 
its greatest length. In some places it is arable. Some idea may be formed 
of the terror with which this " Sea of Sand," with its vast billows of shifting 
sands, is regarded, from the legend that in one of the storms 360 cities were 
all buried within the space of twenty-four hours.' See also Gilmour's 
* Among the Mongols,' chap. 5. 

' An account is given of the kingdom of Shen-shen in the 96th of the 
Books of the first Han dynasty, down to its becoming a dependency of 
China, about b. c. 80. The greater portion of that is now accessible to the 
English reader in a translation by Mr. Wylie in the * Journal of the Anthropo- 
logical Institute,' August, i88o. Mr. Wylie says: — 'Although we may not 



TO SHEN-SHEN AND THENCE TO KHOTEN. 13 

country rugged and hilly, with a thin and barren soU. The clothes of 
the common people are coarse, and like those worn in our land of ^- 
Han ^, some wearing felt and others coarse serge or cloth of hair ; — this 
was the only difference seen among them. The king professed (our) 
Law, and there might be in the country more than four thousand monks^, 









be able to identify Shen-shen with certainty, yet we have sufl5cient indications 
to give an approximate idea of its position, as being south of and not far from 
lake Lob.' He then goes into an exhibition of those indications, which I need 
not transcribe. It is sufl&cient for us to know that the capital city was not far 
from Lob or Lop Nor, into which in Ion. 38° E. the Tarim flows. Fd-hien 
estimated its distance to be 1500 le from T*un-hw^ng. He and his companions 
must have gone more than twenty-five miles a day to accomplish the journey 
in seventeen days. 

* This is the name which Fi-hien always uses when he would speak of 
China, his native country, as a whole, calling it from the great djmasty which had 
ruled it, first and last, for between four and five centuries. OccasionaUy, as we 
shaU immediately see, he speaks of ' the territory of Ts'in or Ch'in,' but intending 
thereby only the kingdom of Ts'in, having its capital, as described in the first note 
on the last chapter, in Ch*ang-gan. 

* So I prefer to translate the character ^i^ (s^ng) rather than by 'priests.' 
Even in Christianity, beyond the priestly privilege which belongs to all believers, 
I object to the ministers of any denomination or church calling themselves or 
being called ' priests ; ' and much more is the name inapplicable to the ^raraanas 
or bhikshus of Buddhism which acknowledges no God in the universe, no soul 
in man, and has no services of sacrifice or prayer in its worship. The only 
difi&culty in the use of * monks ' is caused by the members of the sect in Japan 
which, since the middle of the fifteenth centur}', has abolished the prohibition 
against marrying on the part of its ministers, and other prohibitions in diet and 
dress. S&ng and s^ng-ke^ represent the Sanskrit sang ha, which denotes 
(E. H., p. 117), first, an assembly of monks, or bhikshu sahgha, constituted 
by at least four members, and empowered to hear confession, to grant absolution, 
to admit persons to holy orders, &c.; secondly, the third constituent of the 
Buddhistic Trinity, a deification of the communio sanctorum, or the Buddhist 
order. The name is used by our author of the monks collectively or individually 
as belonging to the class, and may be considered as synonymous with the name 
iramana, which will immediately claim our attention. 



14 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

who were all students of the htnay4na\ The common people of 
this and other kingdoms (in that region), as well as the Iranians ^ 
all practise the rules of India ^ only that the latter do so more 
exactly, and the former more loosely. So (the travellers) found it 
in all the kingdoms through which they went on their way from this 
to the west, only that each had its own peculiar barbarous speech *. 
(The monks), however, who had (given up the worldly life) and 
quitted their families, were all students of Indian books and the 
Indian language. Here they stayed for about a month, and then 
proceeded on their journey, fifteen days walking to the north-west 
bringing them to the country of Woo-e *. In this also there were more 

* Meaning the 'small vehicle, or conve)rance.' There are in Buddhism the 
triyina, or 'three different means of salvation, i.e. of conveyance across the 
samsdra, or sea of transmigration, to the shores of nirvdna. Afterwards 
the term was used to designate the different phases of development through 
which the Buddhist dogma passed, known as the mahdydna, htnaydna, 
and madhyamaydna.' 'The htnaydna is the simplest vehicle of salvation, 
corresponding to the first of the three degrees of saintship. Characteristics 
of it are the preponderance of active moral asceticism, and the absence of 
speculative mysticism and quietism.' E. H., pp. 15 1-2, 45, and 117. 

' The name for India is here the same as in the former chapter and 
throughout the book, — Teen-chuh (^ Afc ), the chuh being pronounced, pro- 
bably, in Fa-hien's time as tuk. How the earliest name for India, Shin-tuk or 
duk=Scinde, came to be changed into Thien-tuk, it would take too much 
space to explain. I believe it was done by the Buddhists, wishing to give 
a good auspicious name to the fatherland of their Law, and calling it 'the 
Heavenly Tuk,' just as the Mohammedans call Arabia ' the Heavenly region ' 
(^ "^y and the court of China itself is called * the Celestial ' (^^). 

" ^raman ' may in English take the place of ^ramana (Pdli, Samana; in Chinese, 
Shd-mHn), the name for Buddhist monks, as those who have separated themselves 
from (left) their families, and quieted their hearts from all intrusion of desire and 
lust. ' It is employed, first, as a general name for ascetics of all denominations, and, 
secondly, as a general designation of Buddhistic monks.' E. H., pp. 130, 131. 

* Tartar or Mongolian. 

* Woo-e has not been identified. Watters ('China Review,' viii. 115) says: — 
* We cannot be far wrong if we place it in Kharaschar, or between that and 



TO SHEN-SHEN AND THENCE TO KHOTEN. 15 

than four thousand monks, all students of the hinay&na. They were 
very strict in their rules, so that Iranians from the territory of Ts'in^ were 
all unprepared for their regulations. F4-hien, through the management 
of Foo Kung-sun, maitre d*h6tellerie^, was able to remain (with his 
company in the monastery where they were received) for more than two 
months, and here they were rejoined by P4o-yun and his friends ^ (At 
the end of that time) the people of Woo-e neglected the duties of pro- 
priety and righteousness, and treated the strangers in so niggardly a 
manner that Che-yen, Hwuy-keen, and Hwuy-wei went back towards 
K4o-ch*ang*, hoping to obtain there the means of continuing their 
journey, F4-hien and the rest, however, through the liberality of Foo 
Kung-sun, managed to go straight forward in a south-west direction. 
They found the country uninhabited as they went along. The difficulties 



Kutscha.' It must have been a country of considerable size to have so many 
monks in it. 

' This means in one sense China, but Fd-hien, in his use of the name, was only 
thinking of the three Ts*in states of which I have spoken in a previous note ; 
perhaps only of that from the capital of which he had himself set out. 

* This sentence altogether is difficult to construe, and Mr. Watters, in the 
'China Review,' was the first to disentangle more than one knot in it. I am 
obliged to adopt the reading of ^fr ^ i^^ ^he Chinese editions, instead of the 
^fi Igp in the Corean text. It seems clear that only one person is spoken of as 
assisting the travellers, and his name, as appears a few sentences farther on, was 
Foo Kung-sun. The ^ ^, which immediately follows the surname Foo (^), 
must be taken as the name of his office, corresponding, as the ^ shows, to that 
of le maitre d'hdtellerie in a Roman Catholic abbey. I was once indebted 
myself to the kind help of such an officer at a monastery in Canton province. 
The Buddhistic name for him is uddesika,=overseer. The Kung-sun that 
follows his surname indicates that he was descended from some feudal lord in 
the old times of the Chow dynasty. We know indeed of no ruling house which 
had the surname of Foo, but its adoption by the grandson of a ruler can be satis- 
factorily accounted for ; and his posterity continued to call themselves Kung-sun, 
duke or lord's grandson, and so retain the memory of the rank of their ancestor. 

* Whom they had left behind them at T*un-hwang. 

* The country of the Ouighurs, the district aroimd the modern Turfan or 
Tangut. 



i6 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

which they encountered in crossing the streams and on their route, and 
the sufferings which they endured, were unparalleled in human experi- 
ence, but in the course of a month and five days they succeeded in 
reaching Yu-teen ^ 

CHAPTER III. 

KHOTEN. PROCESSIONS OF IMAGES. THE KING*S NEW MONASTERY. 

Yu-TEEN is a pleasant and prosperous kingdom, with a numerous and 
flourishing population. The inhabitants all profess our Law, and join 
together in its religious music for their enjoyment ^ The monks amount 
to several myriads, most of whom are students of the mah&y&na^ 
They all receive their food from the common store *. Throughout the 



^ Yu-teen is better known as Khoten. Dr. P. Smith gives (p. ii) the fol- 
lowing description of it : — * A large district on the south-west of the desert of 
Gobi, embracing all the country south of Oksu and Yarkand, along the northern 
base of the Kwun-lun mount ins, for more than 300 miles from east to west. 
The town of the same name, now called Ilcht, is in an extensive plain on the 
Khoten river, in lat. 37° N., and Ion. 80° 35' E. After the Tungdni insurrection 
against Chinese rule in 1862, the Mufti Haji Habeeboolla was made governor of 
Khoten, and held the office till he was murdered by Yakoob Beg, who became for 
a time the conqueror of all Chinese Turkestan. Khoten produces fine linen and 
cotton stuffs, jade omaments, copper, grain, and fruits.' The name in Sanskrit is 
Kustana (E. H., p. 60). 

^ This fondness for music among the Khoteners is mentioned by Hsiian 
ChVang and others. 

' Mahdyina ; see note i on p. 14. It is a later form of the Buddhist doctrine, 
the second phase of its development corresponding to the state of a Bodhisattva, 
who, being able to transport himself and all mankind to nirvana, may be compared 
to a huge vehicle. See Davids on the ' Key-note of the " Great Vehicle/* ' 
Hibbert Lectures, p. 254. 

* Fd-hien supplies sufficient information of how the common store or funds of 
the monasteries were provided, farther on in chapters xvi and xxxix, as well as in 
other passages. As the point is important, I will give here, from Davids* fifth 
Hibbert Lecture (p. 178), some of the words of the dying Buddha, taken from 
* The Book of the Great Decease,' as illustrating the statement in this text : — ' So 



MONASTERIES OF KHOTEN. 17 

country the houses of the people stand apart like (separate) stars, and 
each famil/has a small tope^ reared in front of its door. The smallest 
of these may be twenty cubits high, or rather more ^. They make (in 
the monasteries) rooms for monks from all quarters ^, the use of which 
is given to travelling monks who may arrive, and who are provided 
with whatever else they require. 

The lord of the country lodged F4-hien and the others comfortably, 
and supplied their wants, in a monastery^ called Gomati^, of the 
mah&y&na school. Attached to it there are three thousand monks, who 

long as the brethren shall persevere in kindness of action, speech, and thought 
among the saints, both in public and private ; so long as they shall divide without 
partiality, and share in common with the upright and holy, all such things as they 
receive in accordance with the just provisions of the order, down even to the mere 
contents of a begging bowl ; .... so long may the brethren be expected not to 
decline, but to prosper.' 

* The Chinese ^ (t*ah; in Cantonese, t*ap), as used by Fd-hien, is, no 
doubt, a phonetisation of the Sanskrit stfipa or P&li thdpa; and it is well in 
translating to use for the structures described by him the name of topes, — made 
familiar by Cunningham and other Indian antiquarians. In the thirteenth chapter 
there is an account of one built under the superintendence of Buddha himself, 
* as a model for all topes in future.' They were usually in the form of bell-shaped 
domes, and were solid, surmounted by a long tapering pinnacle formed with a series 
of rings, varying in number. But their form, I suppose, was often varied ; just as 
we have in China pagodas of different shapes. There are several topes now in 
the Indian Institute at Oxford, brought from Buddha Gdyi, but the largest of them 
is much smaller than 'the smallest' of those of Khoten. They were intended 
chiefly to contain relics of Buddha and famous masters of his Law; but what 
relics could there be in the Triratna topes of chapter xvi? 

* The meaning here is much disputed. The author does not mean to say 
that the monk's apartments were made ' square,' but that the monasteries were 
made with many guest-chambers or spare rooms. 

* The Sanskrit term for a monastery is used here, — SanghSrSma, 'gardens 
of the assembly,' originally denoting only ' the surrounding park, but afterwards 
transferred to the whole of the premises ' (£. H., p. 1 18). Gomati, the name of this 
monastery, means ' rich in cows.' 

d 



1 8 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HI EN. 

are called to their meals by the sound of a belL When they enter 
the refectory, their demeanour is marked by a reverent gravity, and they 
take their seats in regular order, all maintaining a perfect silence. No 
sound is heard from their alms-bowls and other utensils. When any of 
these pure men ^ require food, they are not allowed to call out (to the 
attendants) for it, but only make signs with their hands. 

Hwuy-king, Tio-ching, and Hwuy-tah set out in advance towards the 
country of K*eeh-ch'«l*; but FA-hien and the others, wishing to see the 
procession of images, remained behind for three months. There are in 
this country four^ great monasteries, not counting the smaller ones. 
Beginning on the first day of the fourth month, they sweep and water the 
streets inside the city, making a grand display in the lanes and byways. 
Over the city gate they pitch a large tent, grandly adorned in all pos- 
sible ways, in which the king and queen, with their ladies brilliantly 
arrayed *, take up their residence (for the time). 

The monks of the Gomati monastery, being mahiyina students^ and 
held in greatest reverence by the king, took precedence of all the others 
in the procession. At a distance of three or four le from the dty, they 
made a four-wheeled image car, more than thirty cubits high, which looked 
like the great hall (of a monastery) moving along. The seven precious 
substances ^ were grandly displayed about it, with silken streamers and 



* A denomination for the monks as vim a la, 'undefiled' or 'pure.' Giles 
makes it * the menials that attend on the monks/ but I have not met with it in 
that application. 

' K'eeh-ch'd has not been clearly identified. R^musat made it Cashmere; 
Klaproth, Iskardu ; Beal makes it Kartchou ; and Eitel, Khas'a, ' an ancient tribe 
on the Paropamisus, the Kasioi of Ptolemy.* I think it was Ladak, or some well- 
known place in it Hwuy-tah, unless that name be an alias, appears here for 
the first time. 

' Instead of 'four/ the Chinese copies of the text have 'fourteen;' but the 
Corean reading is, probably, more correct. 

* There may have been, as Giles says, 'maids of honour;* but the character 
does not say so. 

* The Sapta-ratna, gold, silver, lapis lazuli, rock crystal, rubies, diamonds 



PROCESSIONS OF IMAGES. 19 

canopies hang^ing all around. The (chief) image ^ stood in the middle of 
the car, with two Bodhisattvas * in attendance on it, while devas * were 
made to follow in waiting, all brilliantly carved in gold and silver^ and 
hanging in the air. When (the car) was a hundred paces from the gate, 
the king put off his crown of state, changed his dress for a fresh suit, and 
with bare feet, carrying in his hands flowers and incense, and witii two 
rows of attending followers, went out at the gate to meet the image ; and, 
with his head and face (bowed to the ground), he did homage at its feet, 
and then scattered the flowers and burnt the incense. When the image 
was entering the gate, the queen and the brilliant ladies with her in the 
gallery above scattered far and wide all kinds of flowers, which floated 
about and fell promiscuously to the ground. In this way everything was 
done to promote the dignity of the occasion. The carriages of the monas- 
teries were all different, and each one had its own day for the procession. 
(The ceremony) began on the first day of the fourth month, and ended 
on the fourteenth, after which the king and queen returned to the 
palace. 

Seven or eight le to the west of the city there is what is called the 
King's New monastery, the building of which took eighty years, and 
extended over three reigns. It may be 250 cubits in height, rich in el^ant 



or emeralds, and agate. See Sacred Books of the East (Davids' Buddhist Suttas), 
vol. xi, p. 249. 

' No doubt that of bdkyamuni himself. 

■ ABodhisattvais one whose essence has become intelligence; a Being who 
will in some future birth as a man (not necessarily or usually the next) attain 
to Buddhahood. The name does not include those Buddhas who have not yet 
attained to parinirvdna. The symbol of the state is an elephant fording a 
river. Popularly, its abbreviated form P'ii-s4 is used in China for any idol or 
image ; here the name has its proper signification. 

' ^ 5^' *^ ^^^ thien,' or simply 'the thien' taken as plural. But in Chinese 
the character called thien (^) denotes heaven, or Heaven, and is interchanged 
with Ti and Shang Tl, meaning God. With the Buddhists it denotes the devas 
or Brahmanic gods, or all the inhabitants of the six devalokas. The usage shows 
the antagonism between Buddhism and Brahmanism, and still more that between 
it and Confucianism. 

d2 



ao THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

carving and inlaid work, covered above with gold and silver, and finished 
throi'ghout with a combination of all the precious substances. Behind 
the tope there has been built a Hall of 'Buddha \ of the utmost magni- 
ficence and beauty, the beams, pillars, venetianed doors, and windows 
being all overlaid with gold-leaf. Besides this, the apartments for the 
monks are imposingly and el^antly decorated, beyond the power of 
words to express. Of whatever things of highest value and preciousness 
the kings in the six countries on the east of the (Ts*ung) range of 
mountains * are possessed, they contribute the greater portion (to this 
monastery), using but a small portion of them themselves ^. 



* Giles and Williams call this * the oratory of Buddha.' But ' oratory * gives 
the idea of a small apartment, whereas the name here leads the mind to think of a 
large 'hall.' I once accompanied the monks of a large monastery from their 
refectory to the Hall of Buddha, which was a lofly and spacious apartment 
splendidly fitted up. 

• The Ts'ung, or 'Onion' range, called also the Belurtagh mountains, in- 
cluding the Karakonim, and forming together the connecting links between the 
more northern Teen-shan and the Kwun-lun mountains on the north of Thibet. 
It would be difficult to name the six countries which Fi-hien had in mind. 

' This seems to be the meaning here. My first impression of it was that the 
author meant to say that the contributions which they received were spent by the 
monks mainly on the buildings, and only to a small extent for themselves ; and 
I still hesitate between that view and the one in the version. 

There occurs here the binomial phrase kung-yang {^iS^ ^j^), which is one 
of the most common throughout the narrative, and is used not only of sup- 
port in the way of substantial contributions given to monks, monasteries, and 
Buddhism, but generally of all Buddhistic worship, if I may use that term 
in the connexion. Let me here quote two or three sentences from Davids' 
Manual (pp. 168-170): — 'The members of the order are secured from want. 
There is no place in the Buddhist scheme for churches ; the offering of flowers 
before the sacred tree or image of the Buddha takes the place of worship. 
Buddhism does not acknowledge the efficacy of prayers; and in the warm 
countries where Buddhists live, the occasional reading of the law, or preaching of 
the word, in public, can take place best in the open air, by moonlight, under a 
simple roof of trees or palms. There are five principal kinds of meditation, which 
in Buddhism takes the place of prayer.' 



TO ICEEH'CH'A. ai 



CHAPTER IV. 

THROUGH THE TS'UNG OR * ONION ' MOUNTAINS TO K'EEH-CH'A ; — 
, PROBABLY SKARDO, OR SOME CITY MORE TO THE EAST IN 
LADAK. 

When the processions of images in the fourth month were over, 
S&ng-shdo, by himself alone, followed a Tartar who was an earnest 
follower of the Law\ and proceeded towards Kophene^. Fi-hien . 

and the others went forward to the kingdom of Tsze-hoh, which it took ^ ^ 
them twenty-five days to reach ®. Its king was a strenuous follower of 
our Law ^ and had (around him) more than a thousand monks, mostly 
students of the mahdySna. Here (the travellers) abode fifteen days, and . 

then went south for four days, when they found themselves among the f^ 

Ts'ung-ling mountains, and reached the country of Yu-hwuy *, where they 

* This Tartar is called a ^ A' ' * ^^^ °^ *® '^*^'' ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ Buddha. 
It occurs several times in the sequel, and denotes the man who is not a Buddhist 
outwardly only, but inwardly as well, whose faith is always making itself manifest in 
his ways. The name may be used of followers of other systems of faith besides 
Buddhism. 

' See the account of the kingdom of Kophene, in the 96th Book of the first 
Han Records, p. 78, where its capital is said to be 12,200 le from Ch'ang-gan. 
It was the whole or part of the present Cabulistan. The name of Cophene is 
connected with the river Kophes, supposed to be the same as the present Cabul 
river, which falls into the Indus, from the west, at Attock, after passing Pesh&wur. 
The city of Cabul, the capital of Afghanistan, may be the Kophene of the text ; but 
we do not know that SSlng-shio and his guide got so far west. The text only 
says that they set out from Khoten ' towards it' 

' Tsze-hoh has not been identified. Beal thinks it was Yarkand, which, 
however, was north-west from Khoten. Watters ('China Review,* p. 135) rather 
approves the suggestion of ' Tashkurgan in Sirikul ' for it As it took Fd-hien 
twenty-five days to reach it, it must have been at least 150 miles from Khoten. 

* The king is described here by a Buddhistic phrase, denoting the possession 
of vfryabala, 'the power of energy; persevering exertion — one of the five 
moral powers' (E. H., p. 170). 

* Nor has Yu-hwuy been clearly identified. Evidently it was directly south from 



v-rr ' 


1 


i'Xi: 


1^ 


■>'v ^ 


V 



V 

22 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

halted and kept their retreat^. When this was over, they went on 
among the hills ^ for twenty-five days, and got to K'eeh-ch'4 ^ there 
rejoining Hwuy-king* and his two companions. 

CHAPTER V. 

GREAT QUINQUENNIAL ASSEMBLY OF MONKS. RELICS OF 
BUDDHA. PRODUCTIONS OF THE COUNTRY. 

It happened that the king of the country was then holding the 
paficha parishad, that is, in Chinese, the great quinquennial assembly*. 
When this is to be held, the king requests the presence of the ^ramans 
from all quarters (of his kingdom). They come (as if) in clouds ; and 
when they are all assembled, their place of session is grandly decorated. 
Silken streamers and canopies are hung out in it, and water-lilies in gold 
and silver are made and fixed up behind the places where (the chief of 
them) are to sit. When clean mats have been spread, and they are all 
seated, the king and his ministers present their offerings according to rule 
and law. (The assembly takes place), in the first, second, or third month, 
for the most part in the spring. 

Tsze-hoh, and among the 'Onion' mountains. Watters hazards the conjecture that 
it was the Aktasch of our present maps. 

^ This was the retreat already twice mentioned as kept by the pilgrims in the 
summer, the different phraseology, ^ quiet rest,' without any mention of the season, 
indicating their approach to India, £. H., p. i68. Two, if not three, years had 
elapsed since they left Ch'ang-gan. Are we now with them in 402 ? 

* This is the Corean reading (|_L|), much preferable to the jj^ of the 
Chinese editions. 

* See p. 18, note 2. Watters approves of Klaproth*s determination of K'eeh- 
ch'^ to be Iskardu or Skardo. There are diflSculties in connexion with the 
view, but it has the advantage, to my mind very great, of bringing the pilgrims 
across the Indus. The passage might be accomplished with ease at this point of 
the river's course, and therefore is not particularly mentioned. 

* Who had preceded them from Khoten, p. 18. 

* See Eitel, p. 89. He describes the assembly as * an ecclesiastical conference, 
first instituted by king Aioka for general confession of sins and inculcation 
of morality.' 



GREAT QUINQUENNIAL ASSEMBLY OF MONKS. 43 

After the king has held the assembly, he further exhorts the ministers 
to make other and special offerings. The doing of this extends over one, 
two, three, five, or even seven days ; and when all is finished, he takes 
his own riding-horse, saddles, bridles, and waits on him himself^, while he 
makes the noblest and most important minister of the kingdom mount 
him. Then, taking fine white woollen cloth, all sorts of precious things, 
and articles which the Sramans require, he distributes them among them, 
uttering vows at the same time along with all his ministers; and when 
this distribution has taken place, he again redeems (whatever he wishes) 
from the monks *. 

The country, being among the hills and cold, does not produce the 
other cereals, and only the wheat gets ripe. After the monks have 
received their annual (portion of this), the mornings suddenly show the 
hoar-frost, and on this account the king always begs the monks to make 
the wheat ripen ^ before they receive their portion. There is in the 
country a spittoon which belonged to Buddha, made of stone, and in 
colour like his alms-bowl. There is also a tooth of Buddha, for which 
the people have reared a tope, connected with which there are more than 
a thousand monks and their disciples^, all students of the hinaydna. 
To the east of these hills the dress of the common people is of coarse 
materials, as in our country of Ts*in, but here also* there were among 
them the differences of fine woollen cloth and of serge or haircloth. The 
rules observed by the Sramans are remarkable, and too numerous to be 
mentioned in detail. The country is in the midst of the Onion range. 



^ The text of this sentence is perplexing; and all translators, including 
myself, have been puzzled by it 

* See what we are told of king Aioka's grant of all the Jambudvtpa to 
the monks in chapter xxvii. There are several other instances of similar gifts 
in the Mahivanla. 

• Watters calls attention to this as showing that the monks of K'eeh-ch'4 
had the credit of possessing weather-controlling powers. 

* The text here has ^^ ^^ not ^^ alone. I often found in monasteries 
boys and lads who looked up to certain of the monks as their preceptors. 

• Compare what is said in chapter ii of the dress of the people of Shen- 
shen. 



24 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

As you go forward from these mountains, the plants, trees, and fruits are 
all different from those of the land of Han, excepting only the bamboo, 
pomegranate^, and sugar-cane. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ON TOWARDS NORTH INDIA. DARADA. IMAGE OF MAITREYA 

BODHISATTVA. 

From this (the travellers) went westwards towards North India, and 
after being on the way for a month, they succeeded in getting across 
and through the range of the Onion mountains. The snow rests on 
them both winter and summer. There are also among them venomous 
dragons, which, when provoked, spit forth poisonous winds, and cause 
showers of snow and storms of sand and gravel. Not one in ten thousand 
of those who encounter these dangers escapes with his life. The people 
of the country call the range by the name of * The Snow mountains.* 
When (the travellers) had got through them, they were in North India, 
and immediately on entering its borders^ found themselves in a small 
kingdom called T*o-leih*, where also there were many monks, all students 
of the htnaydna. 

In this kingdom there was formerly an Arhan ^, who by his supernatural 

^ Giles thinks the fruit here was the guava, because the ordinary name for 
'pomegranate' is preceded by gan (^) ; but the pomegranate was called at 
first Gan Shih-ldu, as having been introduced into China from Gan-seih by 
Chang K'een, who is referred to in chapter vii. 

* Eitel and others identify this with Darada, the country of the ancient 
Dardae, the region near Dardus; lat. 30° 11' N., Ion. 73® 54' K See E. H., 
p. 30. I am myself in more than doubt on the point. Cunningham (' Ancient 
Geography of India,' p. 82) says, 'Darel is a valley on the right or western 
bank of the Indus, now occupied by Dardus or Dards, from whom it received 
its name.' But as I read our narrative, Fd-hien is here on the eastern bank 
of the Indus, and only crosses to the western bank as described in the next 
chapter. 

' Lo-han, Arhat, Arahat are all designations of the perfected Arya, the 
disciple who has passed the different stages of the Noble Path, or eightfold 



THE FIGURE OF MAITREYA. 25 

power ^ took a clever artificer up to the Tush it a* heaven, to see the 
height, complexion, and appearance of Maitreya Bodhisattva ^ and then 
return and make an image of him in wood. First and last, this was done 
three times, and then the image was completed, eighty cubits in height, 
and eight cubits at the base from knee to knee of the crossed legs. 
On fast-days it emits an effulgent light. The kings of the (surrounding) 
countries vie with one another in presenting offerings to it. Here it 
is, — to be seen now as of old *. 



excellent way, who has conquered all passions, and is not to be reborn again. 
Arhatship implies possession of certain supernatural powers, and is not to be 
succeeded by Buddhaship, but implies the fact of the saint having already attained 
nirvdna. Popularly, the Chinese designate by this name the wider circle of 
Buddha's disciples, as well as the smaller ones of 500 and 18. No temple in 
Canton is better worth a visit than that of the 500 Lo-han. 

* Riddhi-sdkshdtkriyd, *the power of supernatural footsteps,'='a body 
flexible at pleasure,' or unlimited power over the body. E. H., p. 104. 

* Tushita is the fourth Devaloka, where all Bodhisattvas are reborn before 
finally appearing on earth as Buddha. Life lasts in Tushita 4000 years, but 
twenty-four hours there are equal to 400 years on earth. E. H., p. 152. 

' Maitreya (Spence Hardy, Maitri), often styled Ajita, *the Invincible,' was 
a Bodhisattva, the principal one, indeed, of Sikyamuni's retinue, but is not 
counted among the ordinary (historical) disciples, nor is anything told of his 
antecedents. It was in the Tushita heaven that ^dkyamuni met him and 
appointed him as his successor, to appear as Buddha after the lapse of 5000 
years. Maitreya is therefore the expected Messiah of the Buddhists, residing 
at present in Tushita, and, according to the account of him in Eitel (H., 
p. 70), 'already controlling the propagation of the Buddhistic faith.' The 
name means 'gentleness' or 'kindness;' and this will be the character of his 
dispensation. 

* The combination of .^ j^ in the text of this concluding sentence, 
and so frequently occurring throughout the narrative, has occasioned no little 
dispute among previous translators. In the imperial thesaurus of phraseology 
(Fei-win Yun-foo), under ^^, an example of it is given from Chwang-tsze, and 

a note subjoined that -^ ^^ is equivalent to "jjj -^ ' ancientiy and now.' 



26 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 



u '.- ^> 



I 



CHAPTER VII. 

CROSSING OF THE INDUS. WHEN BUDDHISM FIRST CROSSED THE 

RIVER FOR THE EAST. 

The travellers went on to the south-west for fifteen days (at the foot of 
the mountains, and) following the course of their range. The way was 
difficult and rugged, (running along) a bank exceedingly precipitous, 
which rose up there, a hill-like wall of rock, 10,000 cubits from the base. 
When one approached the edge of it, his eyes became unsteady ; and if he 
wished to go forward in the same direction, there was no place on which 
he could place his foot ; and beneath were the waters of the river called 
the Indus ^. In former times men had chiselled paths along the rocks, and 
distributed ladders on the face of them, to the number altogether of 700, 
at the bottom of which there was a suspension bridge of ropes, by which 
the river was crossed, its banks being there eighty paces apart ^. The (place 
and arrangements) are to be found in the Records of the Nine Interpreters', 

* The Sindhu. We saw in a former note (2, p. 14), that the earliest name in 
China for India was Shin-tuh. So, here, the river Indus is called by a name 
approaching that in sound. 

' Both Beal and Watters quote from Cunningham (Ladak, pp. 88, 89) 
the following description of the course of the Indus in these parts, in striking 
accordance with our author's account: — 'From Skardo to Rongdo, and from 
Rongdo to Makpou-i-shang-rong, for upwards of 100 miles, the Indus sweeps 
sullen and dark through a mighty gorge in the mountains, which for wild 
sublimity is perhaps unequalled. Rongdo means the country of defiles .... 
Between these points the Indus raves from side to side of the gloomy chasm, 
foaming and chafing with ungovernable fury. Yet even in these inaccessible 
places has daring and ingenious man triumphed over opposing nature. The 
yawning abyss is spanned by frail rope bridges, and the narrow ledges of 
rocks are connected by ladders to form a giddy pathway overhanging the 
seething caldron below.' 

' The Japanese edition has a different reading here from the Chinese 
copies,— one which R^musat (with true critical instinct) conjectured should 
take the place of the more difficult text with which alone he was acquainted. 
The 'Nine Interpreters* would be a general name for the official interpreters 



WHEN BUDDHISM CROSSED THE INDUS. 37 

but neither Chang K*een ^ nor Kan Ying * had reached the 
spot. 

The monks* asked F4-hien if it could be known when the Law of 
Buddha first went to the east. He replied, * When I asked the people 
of those countries about it, they all said that it had been handed down by 
their fathers from of old that, after the setting up of the image of Maitreya 
Bodhisattva, there were Sramans of India who crossed this river, carrying 
with them SCltras and Books of Discipline. Now the image was set up 
rather more than 300 years after the nirvina*of Buddha, which may 
be referred to the reign of king P*ing of the Chow dynasty*. According 



attached to the invading armies of Han in their attempts to penetrate and 
subdue the regions of the west. The phrase occurs in the memoir of Chang 
K'een, referred to in the next note. 

* Chang K'een, a minister of the emperor Woo of Han (stc. 140-87), is 
celebrated as the first Chinese who 'pierced the void/ and penetrated to *the 
regions of the west/ corresponding very much to the present Turkestan. 
Through him, by b.c. 115, a regular intercourse was established between China 
and the thirty-six kingdoms or states of that quarter; — see Mayers' Chinese 
Reader's Manual, p. 5. The memoir of Chang K'een, translated by Mr. Wylie 
from the Books of the first Han dynasty, appears in the Journal of the Anthropo- 
logical Institute, referred to already (note 3, p. 12). 

* Less is known of Kan Ying than of Chang K'een. Being sent in a.d. 
88 by his patron Pan Chio on an embassy to the Roman empire, he only 
got as far as the Caspian sea, and returned to China. He extended, how- 
ever, the knowledge of his countrymen with regard to the western regions; — 
see the memoir of Pan Chio in the Books of the second Han, and Mayers' 
Manual, pp. 167, 168. 

* Where and when? Probably at his first resting-place after crossing the 
Indus. 

^ This may refer to Sikyamuni's becoming Buddha on attaining to nirvina, 
or more probably tohispari-nirvdna and death. 

■ As king Fing's reign lasted from b.c. 750 to 719, this would place the 
death of Buddha in the eleventh century b.c, whereas recent inquirers place it 
between b.c. 480 and 470, a year or two, or a few years, after that of Confucius, 
so that the two great 'Masters' of the east were really contemporaries. But 
if Rhys Davids be correct, as I think he is, in fixing the date of Buddha's death 

e 2 



t 



a8 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

to this account we may say that the diffusion of our great doctrines (in 
the east) began from (the setting up of) this image. If it had not been 
through that Maitreya^, the great spiritual master* (who is to be) the 
successor of the S^kya, who could have caused the "Three Precious 
Ones^" to be proclaimed so far, and the people of those border lands 
to know our Law? We know of a truth that the opening of (the way 
for such) a mysterious propagation is not the work of man ; and so the 
dream of the emperor Ming of Han* had its proper cause.' 



CHAPTER VIIL 

WOO-CHANG, OR UDYAnA. MONASTERIES, AND THEIR WAYS. TRACES 

OF BUDDHA. 

After crossing the river, (the travellers) immediately came to the 
kingdom of Woo-chang *, which is indeed (a part) of North India. The 
people all use the language of Central India, * Central India' being what 
we should call the * Middle Kingdom.* The food and clothes of the 
common people are the same as in that Central Kingdom. The Law of 
Buddha is very (flourishing in Woo-chang). They call the places where 
the monks stay (for a time) or reside permanently Sanghir«lmas^; 
and of these there are in all 500, the monks being all students of the 



within a few years of 412 b.c. (see Manual, p. 213), not to speak of Westergaard's 
still lower date, then the Buddha was very considerably the junior of Confucius. 

* This confirms the words of Eitel (note 3, p. 23), that Maitreya is already 
controlling the propagation of the Faith. 

' The Chinese characters for this simply mean *the great scholar or 
oflBcer;' but see Eitel's Handbook, p. 99, on the term purusha. 

* *The precious Buddha,' 'the precious Law,' and *the precious Monkhood;' 
Buddha, Dharma, and Sahgha; the whole being equivalent to Buddhism. 

* Fd-hien thus endorses the view that Buddhism was introduced into China 
in this reign, a.d. 58-75. The emperor had his dream in a.d. 61. 

* Udyana, meaning * the Park ; ' just north of the Punjdb, the country along, 
the Subhavastu, now called the Swat ; noted for its forests, flowers, and fruits 
(E. H., p. 153). 

* See note 3, p. 17. 



WOO'CHANG. 29 

htnayina. When stranger bhikshus^ arrive at one of them, their 
wants are supplied for three days, after which they are told to find a 
resting-place for themselves. 

There is a tradition that when Buddha came to North India, he came 
at once to this country, and that here he left a print of his foot, which is 
long or short according to the ideas of the beholder (on the subject). It 
exists, and the same thing is true about it, at the present day. Here 
also are still to be seen the rock on which he dried his clothes, and 
the place where he converted the wicked dragon *. The rock is fourteen 
cubits high, and more than twenty broad, with one side of it smooth. 

Hwuy-king, Hwuy-tah, and TAo-ching went on ahead towards (the 
place of) Buddha's shadow in the country of N&gara ' ; but F4-hien and 
the others remained in Woo-chang, and kept the summer retreat*. That .^ — >i 
over, they descended south, and arrived in the country of Soo-ho-to ^ f / / ^ '-'] -v 

^ Bhikshu is the name for a monk as 'living by alms,' a mendicant. 
All bhikshus call themselves Sramans. Sometimes the two names are used 
together by our author. 

' Ndga is the Sanskrit name for the Chinese lung or dragon; often meaning 
a snake, especially the boa. 'Chinese Buddhists/ says Eitel, p. 79, *when 
speaking of ndgas as boa spirits, always represent them as enemies of mankind, 
but when viewing them as deities of rivers, lakes, or oceans, they describe 
them as piously inclined.' The dragon, however, is in China the symbol 
of the Sovereign and Sage, a use of it unknown in Buddhism, according 
to which all ndgas need to be converted in order to obtain a higher phase 
of being. The use of the character too (^)i as here, in the sense of * to 
convert,' is entirely Buddhistic. The six p&ramit^s are the six virtues which 
carry men across (^) the great sea of life and death, as the sphere of 
transmigration to nirvana. With regard to the particular conversion here, 
Eitel (p. 11) says the Ndga's name was Apatila, the guardian deity of 
the Subhavastu river, and that he was converted by S&kyamuni shortly before 
the death of the latter. 

' In Chinese Na-k'eeh, an ancient kingdom and city on the southern 
bank of the Cabul river, about thirty miles west of Jellalabad. 

* We would seem now to be in 403. 

" Soo-ho-to has not been cleariy identified. Beal says that later Buddhist 
writers include it in Udydna. It must have been between the Indus and the 
Swat I suppose it was what we now call Swastene. 



30 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 



CHAPTER IX. 

SOO-HO-TO. LEGEND OF BUDDHA. 

In that country also Buddhism ^ is flourishing. There is in it the 
place where Sakra^ Ruler of Devas, in a former age', tried the Bodhi- 
sattva, by producing * a hawk (in pursuit of a) dove, when (the Bodhi- 

^ Buddhism stands for the two Chinese characters '^ j^, < the Law of Buddha,* 
and to that rendering of the phrase, which is of frequent occurrence, I will in 
general adhere. Buddhism is not an adequate rendering of them any more than 
Christianity would be of t6 €vayyt\iow Xpurrov. The Fd or Law is the equivalent of 
dharma comprehending all in the first Basket of the Buddhist teaching, — as 
Dr. Davids says (Hibbert Lectures, p. 44), 'its ethics and philosophy, and its system 
of self-culture ;' with the theory of karma, it seems to me, especially underlying it 
It has been pointed out (Cunningham's ' Bhilsa Topes,' p. 102) that dharma is 
the keystone of all king Priyadarii or Anoka's edicts. The whole of them are 
dedicated to the attainment of one object, 'the advancement of dharma, or 
of the Law of Buddha.' His native Chinese afforded no better character than 
j^ or Law, by which our author could express concisely his idea of the 
Buddhistic system, as * a law of life,' a directory or system of Rules, by which 
men could attain to the consummation of their being. 

* ^akra is a common name for the Brahmanic Indra, adopted by Buddhism 
into the circle of its own great adherents; — it has been said, * because of his 
popularity.' He is generally styled, as here. Teen Ti, * God or Ruler of 
Devas.' He is now the representative of the secular power, the valiant pro- 
tector of the Buddhist body, but is looked upon as inferior to ^ikyamuni, 
and every Buddhist saint. He appears several times in Fd-hien's narrative. 
£. H., pp. 108 and 46. 

* The Chinese character is ^, 'formerly,' and is often, as in the first 
sentence of the narrative, simply equivalent to that adverb. At other times it 
means, as here, *in a former age,' some pre-existent state in the time of a 
former birth. The incident related is 'a Jdtaka story.' 

* It occurs at once to a translator to render the characters ^ ^ by 'changed 
himself to.' Such is often their meaning in the sequel, but their use in chapter xziv 



LEGENDS OF BUDDHA. 31 

sattva) cut off a piece of his own flesh, and (with it) ransomed the dove. 
After Buddha had attained to perfect wisdom ^, and in travelling about 
with his disciples (arrived at this spot), he informed them that this was 
the place where he ransomed the dove with a piece of his own flesh. In 
this way the people of the country became aware of the fact, and on the 
spot reared a tope, adorned with layers ^ of gold and silver plates. 

• 

CHAPTER X. 

GANDHArA. legends of BUDDHA. 

The travellers, going downwards from this towards the east, in five . ^ 

days came to the country of Gandhdra ^ the place where Dharma-vivar- C'.; ^ rr7 ; * \^r 
dhana^ the son of A^oka*, ruled. When Buddha was a Bodhisattva^ 
he gave his eyes also for another man here^ ; and at the spot they have 

may be considered as a crucial test of the meaning which I have given to 
them here. 

* That is, had become Buddha, or completed his course (j^ ^)* 

* This seems to be the contribution of j^ (or WjF), to the force of the 

binomial i^ '^b, which is continually occurring. 

' Eitel says 'an ancient kingdom, corresponding to the region about Dheri 
and Banjour.' But see note i on next page. 

* Dhanna-vivardhana is the name in Sanskrit, represented by the Fd Yf 
(i^ ^ ^f the text. 

^ Aioka is here mentioned for the first time ; — the Constantine of the Buddhist 
society, and famous for the number of vihdras and topes which he erected. 
He was the grandson of Chandragupta (i. q. Sandracottus), a rude adventurer, who 
at one time was a refugee in the camp of Alexander the Great ; and within about 
twenty years afterwards drove the Greeks out of India, having defeated Seleucus, 
the Greek ruler of the Indus provinces. He had by that time made himself king 
of Magadha. His grandson was converted to Buddhism by the bold and patient 
demeanour of an Arhat whom he had ordered to be buried alive, and became a 
most zealous supporter of the new faith. Dr. Rhys Davids (Sacred Books of the 
East, vol. xi, p. xlvi) says that ' Aioka's coronation can be fixed with absolute 
certainty within a year or two either way of 267 b.c' 

' This also is a Jdtaka story; but Eitel thinks it may be a myth, constructed 
from the story of the blinding of Dharma-vivardhana. 



3» THE TRAVELS OF FX-HIEN. 

also reared a large tope, adorned with layers of gold and silver plates. 
The people of the country were mostly students of the htnayAna. 



CHAPTER XL 
taksha^tlA. legends, the four great topes. 

Seven days' journey from this to the east brought the travellers to 
the kingdom of Taksha^ili^, which means *the severed head' in the 
language of China. Here, when Buddha was a Bodhisattva, he gave 
away his head to a man^; and from this circumstance the kingdom got 
its name. 

Going on further for two days to the east, they came to the place 
where the Bodhisattva threw down his body to feed a starving tigress*. 
In these two places also large topes have been built, both adorned with 
layers of all the precious substances. The kings, ministers, and peoples 
of the kingdoms around vie ^vlth one another in making offerings at 
them. The trains of those who come to scatter flowers and light lamps 
at them never cease. The nations of those quarters call those (and the 
other two mentioned before) * the four great topes.' 

* See Julian's * M^thode pour d^chiffrer et transcrire les Noms Sanscrits,' p. 206^ 
Eitel says, ' The Taxila of the Greeks, the region near Hoosun Abdaul in lat. 
35*' 48' N., Ion. 72° 44' E. But this identification, I am satisfied, is wrong. 
Cunningham, indeed, takes credit (* Ancient Geography of India,' pp. 108, 109) 
for determining this to be the site of Arrian's Taxila, — ^in the upper Punjdb, still 
existing in the ruins of Shahdheri, between the Indus and Hydaspes (the modem. 
Jhelum). So far he may be correct ; but the Takshaiild of Fd-hien was on the 
other, or western side of the Indus ; and between the river and Gandhdra. It 
took him, indeed, seven days travelling eastwards to reach it ; but we do not know 
what stoppages he may have made on the way. We must be wary in reckoning 
distances from his specifications of days. 

• Two Jitaka stories. See the account of the latter in Spence Hardy's ' Manual 
of Buddhism,' pp. 91, 92. It took place when Buddha had been bom as a 
Brahman in the village of Daliddi ; and from the merit of the act, he was next 
bom in a devaloka. 



PURUSHAPURA, OR PESffAWUR. 33 



CHAPTER XII. 

PURUSHAPURA, OR PESHAwUR. PROPHECY ABOUT KING KANISHKA 
AND HIS TOPE. BUDDHA'S ALMS-BOWL. DEATH OF HWUY-YING. 

Going southwards from GAndh^ra, (the travellers) in four days , ^j , 

arrived at the kingdom of Purushapura^. Formerly, when Buddha was j]- i\^:y ' 

nanda^ * After 
my pari-nirvAna^, there will be a king named Kanishka*, who shall 
on this spot build a tope.' This Kanishka was afterwards born into the 
world ; and (once), when he had gone forth to look about him, 

* The modem Peshdwur, lat. 34° 8' N., Ion. 71° 30' E. 

* A first cousin of Sakyamuni, and born at the moment when he attained to 
Buddhaship. Under Buddha's teaching, Ananda became an Arhat, and is famous 
for his strong and accurate memory ; and he played an important part at the 
first council for the formation of the Buddhist canon. The friendship between 
Sakyamuni and Ananda was very close and tender ; and it is impossible to read 
much of what the dying Buddha said to him and of him, as related in the MahS- 
pari-nirvina Sfitra, without being moved almost to tears. Ananda is to reappear 
on earth as Buddha in another Kalpa. See £. H., p. 9, and the Sacred Books of 
the East, vol. xi. 

' On his attaining to nirvdna, Sakyamuni became the Buddha, and had no 
longer to mourn his being within the circle of transmigration, and could rejoice in 
an absolute freedom from passion, and a perfect purity. Still he continued to live 
on for forty-five years, till he attained to pari-nirvdna, and had done with all the life 
of sense and society, and had no more exercise of thought. He died ; but whether he 
absolutely and entirely ceased to be, in any sense of the word being, it would be 
difiScult to say. Probably he himself would not and could not have spoken 
definitely on the point. S«Jar as our use of language is concerned, apart from any 
assured faith in and hope of immortality, his pari-nirvdna was his death. 

* Kanishka appeared, and began to reign, early in our first century, about a.d. 
10. He was the last of three brothers, whose original seat was in YUeh-she, 
immediately mentioned, or Tukhlra. Converted by the sudden appearance of a 
saint, he became a zealous Buddhist, and patronised the system as liberally as 
Aioka had done. The finest topes in the north-west of India are ascribed to 
him ; he was certainly a great man and a magnificent sovereign. 

f 



34 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

^akra, Ruler of Devas, wishing to excite the idea in his mind, assumed 
the appearance of a little herd-boy, and was making a tope right in the 
way (of the king), who asked what sort of a thing he was making. 
The boy said, ' I am making a tope for Buddha.' The king said, * Very 
good;' and immediately, right over the boy's tope, he (proceeded to) 
rear another, which was more than four hundred cubits high, and adorned 
with layers of all the precious substances. Of all the topes and temples 
which (the travellers) saw in their joumeyings, there was not one 
comparable to this in solemn beauty and majestic grandeur. There 
is a current saying that this is the finest tope in Jambudvfpa ^ When 
the king's tope was completed, the little tope (of the boy) came out 
from its side on the south, rather more than three cubits in height. 

Buddha's alms-bowl is in this country. Formerly, a king of Yiieh- 
she^ raised a large force and invaded this country, wishing to carry the 
bowl away. Having subdued the kingdom, as he and his captains were 
sincere believers in the Law of Buddha, and wished to carry off the 
bowl, they proceeded to present their offerings on a great scale. When 
they had done so to the Three Precious Ones, he made a large elephant 
be grandly caparisoned, and placed the bowl upon it. But the elephant 
knelt down on the ground, and was unable to go forward. Again he 
caused a four-wheeled wa^on to be prepared in which the bowl was put 
to be conveyed away. Eight elephants were then yoked to it, and 
dragged it with their united strength ; but neither were they able to 

* Jambudvtpa is one of the four great continents of the universe, representing 
the inhabited world as fancied by the Buddhists, and so called because it re- 
sembles in shape the leaves of the jambu tree. It is south of mount Mem, and 
divided among four fabulous kings (£. H., p. 36). It is often used, as here 
perhaps, merely as the Buddhist name for India. 

' This king was perhaps Kanishka himself, Fd-hien mixing up, in an 
inartistic way, different legends about him. Eitel suggests that a relic of the old 
name of the country may still exist in that of the Jats or Juts of the present day. 
A more common name for it is Tukhdra, and he observes that the people were the 
Indo-Scythians of the Greeks, and the Tartars of Chinese writers, who, driven on 
by the Huns (180 b.c), conquered Transoxiana, destroyed the Bactrian kingdom 
(126 B.C.), ^nd finally conquered the Punjab, Cashmere, and great part of India, 
their greatest king being Kanishka (£. H., p. 152). 



THE BUDDHA 'S ALMS-BO WZ. 35 

go forward. The king knew that the time for an association between him- 
self and the bowl had not yet arrived^, and was sad and deeply ashamed 
of himself. Forthwith he built a tope at the place and a monastery, 
and left a guard to watch (the bowl), making all sorts of contributions. 

There may be there more than seven hundred monks. When it is 
near midday, they bring out the bowl, and, along with the common 
people*, make their various offerings to it, after which they take their 
midday meal. In the evening, at the time of incense, they bring the 
bowl out again ^. It may contain rather more than two pecks, and is of 
various colours, black predominating, with the seams that show its 
fourfold composition distinctly marked *. Its thickness is about the fifth 
of an inch, and it has a bright and glossy lustre. When poor people 
throw into it a few flowers, it becomes immediately full, while some 
very rich people, wishing to make offering of many flowers, might not 
stop till they had thrown in hundreds, thousands, and myriads of 
bushels, and yet would not be able to fill it*. 

* Walters, clearly understanding the thought of the author in this sentence, 
renders — * his destiny did not extend to a connexion with the bowl ; ' but the term 
' destiny' suggests a controlling or directing power without. The king thought that 
his virtue in the past was not yet sufficient to give him possession of the bowl. 

* The text is simply * those in white clothes.' This may mean * the laity,* or 
the 'upisakas ;' but it is better to take the characters in their common Chinese 
acceptation, as meaning * commoners,' * men who have no rank.' See in Williams' 
Dictionary under Q. 

* I do not wonder that R^musat should give for this — 'ct sen retournent 
apr^s.' But Fd-hien's use of ^f in the sense of ' in the same way ' is uniform 
throughout the narrative. 

* Hardy's M. B., p. 183, says: — *The alms-bowl, given by Mahdbrahma, 
having vanished (about the time that Gotama became Buddha), each of the 
four guardian deities brought him an alms-bowl of emerald, but he did not accept 
them. They then brought four bowls made of stone, of the colour of the mung 
fruit ; and when each entreated that his own bowl might be accepted, Buddha 
caused them to appear as if formed into a single bowl, appearing at the upper rim 
as if placed one within the other,' See the account more correctly given in the 
* Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. no. 

* G>mpare the narrative in Luke's Gospel, xxi. 1-4. 

(2 



J- '" ■ 



' •• 



I 



\T 



/ 



36 rffE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

P4o-yun and S5ng-king here merely made their offerings to the alms- 
bowl, and (then resolved to) go back. Hwuy-king, Hwuy-tah, and T4o- 
ching had gone on before the rest to Nagdra^, to make their offerings 
at (the places of) Buddha's shadow, tooth, and the flat-bone of his skull. 
(There) Hwuy-king fell ill, and TAo-ching remained to look after him, 
while Hwuy-tah came alone to Purushapura, and saw the others, and 
(then) he with PAo-yun and S5ng-king took their way back to the 
land of Ts'in. Hwuy-king* came to his end^ in the monastery of 
Buddha's alms-bowl, and on this F4-hien went forward alone towards 
the place of the flat-bone of Buddha's skull. 

CHAPTER Xni. 

nagAra. festival of buddha*s skull-bone, other relics, and 

his shadow. 

Going west for sixteen yojanas*, he came to the city He-lo* in 
the borders of the country of Nag4ra, where there is the flat-bone of 
Buddha's skull, deposited in a vih4ra® adorned all over with gold-leaf 

^ See chapter viii. 

* This, no doubt, should be Hwuy-ying. King was at this time ill in Nag&ra, and 
indeed afterwards he dies in crossing the Litde Snowy Mountains; but all the 
texts make him die twice. The confounding of the two names has been pointed 
out by Chinese critics. 

■ * Came to his end ; ' i. e., according to the text, * proved the impermanence 
and uncertainty,' namely, of human life. See Williams' Dictionary under 
*Sr. The phraseology is wholly Buddhistic. 

* Now in India, Fa-hien used the Indian measure of distance; but it is not 
possible to determine exactly what its length then was. The estimates of it are 
very different, and vary from four and a half or five miles to seven, and sometimes 
more. See the subject exhaustively treated in Davids' * Ceylon Coins and 
Measures,' pp. 15-17. 

' The present Hidda, west of Pesh&wur, and five miles south of Jellalabad. 

* * The vihdra,' says Hardy, * is the residence of a recluse or priest;' and so 
Davids : — * the clean little hut where the mendicant lives.* Our author, however, 
does not use the Indian name here, but the Chinese characters which express its 
meaning — tsing shay, 'a pure dwelling.' He uses the term occasionally, and 



NAGARA. THE BUDDHA'S SKULL^BONE. 37 

and the seven sacred substances. The king of the country, revering 
and honouring the bone^ and anxious lest it should be stolen away, 
has selected eight individuals, representing the great families in the 
kingdom, and committed to each a seal, with which he should seal (its 
shrine) and guard (the relic). At early dawn these eight men come, and 
after each has inspected his seal, they open the door. This done, they 
wash their hands with scented water and bring out the bone, which they 
place outside the vihAra, on a lofty platform, where it is supported on 
a round pedestal of the seven precious substances, and covered with a 
bell of lapis lazuli, both adorned with rows of pearls. Its colour is of 
a yellowish white, and it forms an imperfect circle twelve inches round ^, 
curving upwards to the centre. Every day, after it has been brought 
forth, the keepers of the vihAra ascend a high gallery, where they beat 
great drums, blow conchs, and clash their copper cymbals. When the 
king hears them, he goes to the vih4ra, and makes his offerings of 
flowers and incense. When he has done this, he (and his attendants) in 
order, one after another, (raise the bone), place it (for a moment) on 
the top of their heads ^, and then depart, going out by the door on the 
west as they had entered by that on the east. The king every morning 
makes his offerings and performs his worship, and afterwards gives 

evidently, in this sense ; more frequently it occurs in his narrative in connexion with 
the Buddhist relic worship; and at first I translated it by 'shrine* and * shrine-house;' 
but I came to the conclusion, at last, to employ always the Indian name. The first 
time I saw a shrine-house was, I think, in a monastery near Foo-chow ; — a small 
pyramidal structure, about ten feet high, glittering as if with the precious substances, 
but all, it seemed to me, of tinsel. It was in a large apartment of the building, 
having many images in it. The monks said it was the most precious thing in their 
possession, and that if they opened it, as I begged them to do, there would be a 
convulsion that would destroy the whole establishment. See E. H., p. 166. The 
name of the province of Behar was given to it in consequence of its many vihdras. 

* According to the characters, 'square, round, four inches.' HsUan-chwang 
says it was twelve inches round. 

* In Williams' Dictionary, under "fS, the characters, used here, are employed 
in the phrase for * to degrade an officer,' that is, * to remove the token of his rank 
worn on the crown of his head ; ' but to place a thing on the crown is a Buddhistic 
form of religious homage. 



38 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

audience on the business of his government. The chiefs of the Vai^yas ^ 
also make their offerings before they attend to their family affairs. 
Every day it is so, and there is no remissness in the observance of the 
custom. When all the offerings are over, they replace the bone in the 
vih&ra, where there isavimoksha tope*, of the seven precious sub- 
stances, and rather more than five cubits high, sometimes open, some- 
times shut, to contain it. In front of the door of the vih& ra, there are 
parties who every morning sell flowers and incense ^, and those who wish 
to make offerings buy some of all kinds. The kings of various countries 
are also constantly sending messengers with offerings. The vihira 
stands in a square of thirty paces, and though heaven should shake and 
earth be rent, this place would not move. 

Going on, north from this, for a yojana, (F4-hien) arrived at the 
capital of Nag&ra, the place where the Bodhisattva once purchased with 
money five stalks of flowers, as an offering to the Dipinkara Buddha ^ 
In the midst of the city there is also the tope of Buddha's tooth, where 
offerings are made in the same way as to the flat*bone of his skull. 

A yojana to the north-east of the city brought him to the mouth of 
a valley, where there is Buddha's pewter staff* ; and a vih&ra also has 



* The Vaiiyas, or bourgeois caste of Hindu society, are described here as 

* resident scholars.' 

^ See Eitel's Handbook under the name vimoksha, which is explained as 
' the act of self-liberation/ and * the dwelling or state of liberty/ There are eight 
acts of liberating one's self from all subjective and objective trammels, and as 
many states of liberty (vimukti) resulting therefrom. They are eight degrees of 
self-inanition, and apparently eight stages on the way to nirvdna. The tope in 
the text would be emblematic in some way of the general idea of the mental 
progress conducting to the Buddhistic consummation of existence. 

* This incense would be in long 'sticks,' small and large, such as are sold 
to-day throughout China, as you enter the temples. 

* * The illuminating Buddha,' the twenty-fourth predecessor of ^dkyamuni, 
and who, so long before, gave him the assurance that he would by-and-by be 
Buddha. See Jdtaka Tales, p. 23. 

^ The staflf was, as immediately appears, of Go^irsha Chandana, or 

* sandal-wood from the Cow's-head mountain,' a species of copper-brown sandal- 



BUDDHA'S STAFF, ROBE, AND SHADOW. 39 

been built at which ofTerings are made. The staff is made of Goilrsha 
Chandana^ and is quite sixteen or seventeen cubits long. It is con- 
tained in a wooden tube, and though a hundred or a thousand men 
were to (try to) lift it, they could not move it. 

Entering the mouth of the valley, and going west, he found Buddha's 
Sangh&li^, where also there is reared a vih&ra, and offerings are made. 
It is a custom of the country when there is a great drought, for 
the people to collect in crowds, bring out the robe, pay worship to it, 
and make offerings, on which there is immediately a great rain from 
the sky. 

South of the city, half a yojana, there is a rock-cavern, in a great 
hill fronting the south-west ; and here it was that Buddha left his 
shadow. Looking at it from a distance of more than ten paces, you 
seem to see Buddha's real form, with his complexion of gold, and his 
characteristic marks ^ in their nicety clearly and brightly displayed. 
The nearer you approach, however, the fainter it becomes, as if it were 
only in your fancy. When the kings from the regions all around have 
sent skilful artists to take a copy, none of them have been able to do so. 
Among the people of the country there is a saying current that * the 
thousand Buddhas^ must all leave their shadows here.' 

Rather more than four hundred paces west from the shadow, when 
Buddha was at the spot, he shaved off his hair and dipt his nails, and 
proceeded, along with his disciples, to build a tope seventy or eighty 



wood, said to be produced most abundantly on a mountain of (the fabulous 
continent) Ullarakuru, north of mount Meru, which resembles in shape the head 
of a cow (£. H., pp. 42, 43). It is called a ' pewter staff ' from having on it a head 
and rings of pewter. See Wattcrs, 'China Review,' viii, pp. 227, 228, and 
Williams' Dictionary, under ;^. 

' Or Sanghdti, the double or composite robe, part of a monk's attire, reaching 
from the shoulders to the knees, and fastened round the waist (£. H., p. 118). 

' These were the ' marks and beauties ' on the person of a supreme Buddha. 
The rishi Kald Devala saw them on the body of the infant ^akya prince to the 
number of 328, those on the teeth, which had not yet come out, being visible to his 
spirit-like eyes (M. B., pp. 148, 149). 

» Probably =' all Buddhas.' 



40 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

cubits high, to be a model for all future topes ; and it is still existing. 
By the side of it there is a monastery, with more than seven hundred 
monks in it. At this place there are as many as a thousand topes ^ 
of Arhans and Pratyeka Buddhas ^. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

DEATH OF HWUY-KING IN THE LITTLE SNOWY MOUNTAINS. LO-E. 
POHNA. CROSSING THE INDUS TO THE EAST. 

Having stayed there till the third month of winter, F4-hien and the 
two others ^ proceeding southwards, crossed the Little Snowy mountains^. 
On them the snow lies accumulated both winter and summer. On the 
north (side) of the mountains, in the shade, they suddenly encountered a 
cold wind which made them shiver and become unable to speak. Hwuy- 
king could not go any farther. A white froth came from his mouth, 

^ The number may appear too great. But see M^hat is said on the size of 
topes in note i, page 17. 

' In Singhalese, Pas6 Buddhas; called also Niddna Buddhas, and Pra- 
tyeka Jinas, and explained by * individually intelligent,' * completely intelligent,' 
* intelligent as regards the niddnas.' This, says Eitel (pp. 96, 97), is ' a degree of 
saintship unknown to primitive Buddhism, denoting automats in ascetic life who 
attain to Buddhaship '' individually," that is, without a teacher, and without being 
able to save others. As the ideal hermit, the Pratyeka Buddha is compared with 
the rhinoceros khadga that lives lonely in the wilderness. He is also called N id in a 
Buddha, as having mastered the twelve niddnas (the twelve links in the everlast- 
ing chain of cause and effect in the whole range of existence, the understanding 
of which solves the riddle of life, revealing the inanity of all forms of existence, 
and preparing the mind for nirvdna). He is also compared to a horse, which, 
crossing a river, almost buries its body under the water, without, however, touching 
the bottom of the river. Thus in crossing samsdra he " suppresses the errors of 
life and thought, and the effects of habit and passion, without attaining to absohite 
perfection." ' Whether these Buddhas were unknown, as Eitel says, to primitive 
Buddhism, may be doubted. See Davids' Hibbert Lectures, p. 14^- 

' These must have been TSo-ching and Hwuy-king. 

* Probably the Safeid Koh, and on the way to the Kohat pass. 




CROSSING THE INDUS INTO THE PUNJAB. 41 

and he said to F4-hien, * I cannot live any longer. Do you immediately 
go away, that we do not all die here;* and with these words he 
died^ Fd-hien stroked the corpse, and cried out piteously, *Our 
original plan has failed; — it is fate^. What can we do?' He then 
again exerted himself, and they succeeded in crossing to the south of the 
range, and arrived in the kingdom of Lo-e ^, where there were nearly three 
thousand monks, students of both the mahdydna and hi nay in a. 
Here they stayed for the summer retreat*, and when that was over, they 
went on to the south, and ten days' journey brought them to the 
kingdom of Poh-nA*, where there are also more than three thousand 
monks, all students of the hinaydna. Proceeding from this place for 
three days, they again crossed the Indus, where the country on each 
side was low and level ^. 

CHAPTER XV. 

BHIDA. SYMPATHY OF MONKS WITH THE PILGRIMS. 

After they had crossed the river, there was a country named 
Pe-t'oo '^, where Buddhism was very flourishing, and (the monks) studied 
both the mahdydna and hinaydna. When they saw their fellow- 
disciples from Ts*in passing along, they were moved with great pity and 
sympathy, and expressed themselves thus : * How is it that these men 

* All the texts have Hwuy-king. See note 2, page 36. 

* A very natural exclamation, but out of place and inconsistent from the lips 
of Fd-hien. The Chinese character '^, which he employed, may be rendered 
rightly by * fate ' or * destiny ; ' but the fate is not unintelligent. The term implies a 
factor, or fa- tor, and supposes the ordination of Heaven or God. A Confucian 
idea for the moment overcame his Buddhism. 

' Lo-e, or Roht, is a name for Afghanistan ; but only a portion of it can be 
here intended. 

* We are now therefore in 404. 

* No doubt the present district of Bannu, in the Lieutenant-Governorship of 
the Punjdb, between 32° 10' and 33° 15' N. lat., and 70° 26' and 72® E. Ion. See 
Hunter's Gazetteer of India, i, p. 393. 

* They had then crossed the Indus before. They had done so, indeed, twice: first, 
from north to south, at Skardo or east of it; and second, as described in chap. vii. 

^ Bhida. Eitel says, *The present Punjab ;* i.e. it was a portion of that. 

g 






I 



;c 



42 THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN, 

from a border-land should have learned to become monks ^, and come for 
the sake of our doctrines from such a distance in search of the Law of 
Buddha?' They supplied them with what they needed, and treated 
them in accordance with the rules of the Law. 

CHAPTER XVL 
ON TO mathurA or muttra. condition and customs of central 

INDIA ; OF THE MONKS, VIHARAS, AND MONASTERIES. 

From this place they travelled south-east, passing by a succession of 
very many monasteries, with a multitude of monks, who might be counted 
by myriads. After passing all these places, they came to a country named 
Ma-t'Aou-lo *. They still followed the course of the P*oo-na ' river, on 
the banks of which, left and right, there were twenty monasteries, which 
might contain three thousand monks ; and (here) the Law of Buddha 
was still more flourishing. Everywhere, from the Sandy Desert, in 
all the countries of India, the kings had been firm believers in that Law. 
When they make their offerings to a community of monks, they take off 
their royal caps, and along with their relatives and ministers, supply 
them with food with their own hands. That done, (the king) has a 
carpet spread for himself on the ground, and sits down on it in front of 
the chairman ; — they dare not presume to sit on couches in front of the 
community. The laws and ways, according to which the kings presented 
their offerings when Buddha was in the world, have been handed down to 
the present day. 

All south from this is named the Middle Kingdom *. In it the cold and 
heat are finely tempered, and there is neither hoarfrost nor snow. The 
people are numerous and happy; they have not to roister their 
households, or attend to any magistrates and their rules ; only those who 

* * To come forth from, their families ; ' that is, to become celibates, and adopt 
the tonsure. 

* Muttra, * the peacock city ; ' lat. 27° 30' N., Ion. 77° 43' E. (Hunter) ; the birth- 
place of Krishna, whose emblem is the peacock. 

' This must be the Jumna, or Yamund. Why it is called, as here, the Foo-na 
has yet to be explained. 

* In pan, Majjhima-desa, ' the Middle Country.' See Davids' ' Buddhist Birth 
Stories,' page 61, note. 



CUSTOMS OF MID'INDIA. 43 

cultivate the royal land have to pay (a portion of) the gain from it. If they 
want to go, they go ; if they want to stay on, they stay. The king governs 
without decapitation or (other) corporal punishments. Criminals are 
simply fined, lightly or heavily, according to the circumstances (of each 
case). Even in cases of repeated attempts at wicked rebellion, they only 
have their right hands cut off. The king s body-guards and attendants all 
have salaries. Throughout the whole country the people do not kill any 
living creature, nor drink intoxicating liquor, nor eat onions or garlic. 
The only exception is that of the Chanddlas^. That is the name for 
those who are (held to be) wicked men, and live apart from others. 
When they enter the gate of a city or a market-place, they strike a piece 
of wood to make themselves known, so that men know and avoid them, 
and do not come into contact with them. In that country they do not 
keep pigs and fowls, and do not sell live cattle ; in the markets there 
are no butchers' shops and no dealers in intoxicating drink. In buying 
and selling commodities they use cowries^. Only the Chand&las are 
fishermen and hunters, and sell flesh meat. 

After Buddha attained to pari-nirvdna^ the kings of the various 
countries and the heads of the Vaiiyas* built vihiras for the priests, 
and endowed them with fields, houses, gardens, and orchards, along with 
the resident populations and their cattle, the grants being engraved on 
plates of metal *, so that afterwards they were handed down from king 
to king, without any one daring to annul them, and they remain even to 
the present time. 



* Eitel (pp. 145, 6) says, *The name Chanddlas is explained by "butchers," 
" wicked men," and those who carry " the awful flag," to warn off their betters ; — 
the lowest and most despised caste of India, members of which, however, when 
converted, were admitted even into the ranks of the priesthood.* 

* 'Cowries;' ^ ]®, not 'shells and ivory,' as one might suppose; but 
cowries alone, the second term entering into the name from the marks inside the 
edge of the shell, resembling * the teeth of fishes/ 

' See note 3, page 33, Buddha's pari-nirvina is equivalent to Buddha's death. 

* See note i, page 38. The order of the characters is different here, but with 
the same meaning. 

■ See the preparation of such a deed of grant in a special case, as related in 
chap, xxxix. No doubt in FS-hien's time, and long before and after it, it was 
the custom to engrave such deeds on plates of metal. 



44 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

• 

The regular business of the monks is to perform acts of meritorious 
virtue, and to recite their Sutras and sit wrapt in meditation. When 
stranger monks arrive (at any monastery), the old residents meet and 
receive them, carry for them their clothes and alms-bowl, give them water 
to wash their feet, oil with which to anoint them, and the liquid food per- 
mitted out of the regular hours ^. When (the stranger) has enjoyed a 
very brief rest, they further ask the number of years that he has been 
a monk, after which he receives a sleeping apartment with its appur- 
tenances, according to his regular order, and everything is done for him 
which the rules prescribe ^ 

Where a community of monks resides, they erect topes to Siriputtra', 
to Mah4-maudgaly4yana*, and to Ananda'^, and also topes (in honour) of 

^ * No monk can eat solid food except between sunrise and noon,' and total 
abstinence from intoxicating drinks is obligatory (Davids' Manual, p, 163). Food 
eaten at any other part of the day is called vikdla, and forbidden; but a weary 
traveller might receive unseasonable refreshment, consisting, as Watters has shown 
(Ch. Rev. viii. 282), of honey, butter, treacle, and sesamum oil. 

* The expression here is somewhat perplexing; but it occurs again in chap, xxxviii ; 
and the meaning is clear. See Watters, Ch. Rev. viii. 282, 3. The rules are given at 
length in the Sacred Books of the East, vol. xx, p. 272 and foil., and p. 279 and foil. 

* ^ariputtra (Singh. Seriyat) was one of the principal disciples of Buddha, 
and indeed the most learned and ingenious of them all, so that he obtained the 
title of :^ ^^, * knowledge and wisdom.' He is also called Buddha's 'right-hand 
attendant.' His name is derived from that of his mother Sdrikd, the wife of 
Tishya, a native of Nalanda, In Spence Hardy, he often appears under the 
name of Upatissa (Upa-tishya), derived from his father. Several Sastras are 
ascribed to him, and indeed the followers of the Abhidharma look on him as their 
founder. He died before Sdkyamuni; but is to reappear as a future Buddha. 
Eitel, pp. 123, 124. 

* Mugalan, the Singhalese name of this disciple, is more pronounceable. He 
also was one of the principal disciples, called Buddha's ' left-hand attendant' He 
was distinguished for his power of vision, and his magic powers. The name in 
the text is derived from the former attribute, and it was by the latter that he took 
up an artist to Tushita to get a view of ^dkyamuni, and so make a statue of him. 
(Compare the similar story in chap, vi.) He went to hell, and released his mother. 
He also died before Sdkyamuni, and is to reappear as Buddha. Eitel, p. 65. 

* See note 2, page 33. 



WAFS OF THE MONKISH COMMUNITIES. 45 

the AbhidharmaS the VinayaS and the SOtras^. A month after the 
(annual season of) rest, the families which are looking out for blessing 
stimulate one another ^ to make offerings to the monks, and send round 
to them the liquid food which may be taken out of the ordinary hours. 
All the monks come together in a great assembly, and preach the Law^; 
after which offerings are presented at the tope of SAriputtra, with all 
kinds of flowers and incense. All through the night lamps are kept 
burning, and skilful musicians are employed to perform *. 

When SAriputtra was a great Brahman, he went to Buddha, and 
b^ged (to be permitted) to quit his family (and become a monk). The 
great Mugalan and the great Ka^yapa* also did the same. The bhik- 
s hunts® for the most part make their offerings at the tope of Ananda, 
because it was he who requested the World-honoured one to allow females 
to quit their families (and become nuns). The Srdmaneras"^ mostly 



* The different parts of the tripitaka. See note 2, page 10. 

* A passage rather difficult to construe. The 'families' would be those 
more devout than their neighbours. 

' One rarely hears this preaching in China. It struck me most as I once 
heard it at Osaka in Japan. There was a pulpit in a large hall of the temple, 
and the audience sat around on the matted floor. One priest took the pulpit 
after another; and the hearers nodded their heads occasionally, and indicated 
their S3nxipathy with a sentiment now and then by an audible *h'm,' which 
reminded me of Carlyle's description of meetings of *The Ironsides' of 
Cromwell 

* This last statement is wanting in the Chinese editions. 

* There was a Ka^yapa Buddha, anterior to Sdkyamuni. But this Mahi- 
ka^yapa was a Brahman of Magadha, who was converted by Buddha, and became 
one of his disciples. He took the lead after ^dkyamuni's death, convoked 
and directed the first synod, from which his tide of Arya-sthavira is derived. 
As the first compiler of the Canon, he is considered the fountain of Chinese 
orthodoxy, and counted as the first patriarch. He also is to be reborn as a 
Buddha. Eitel, p. 64. 

* The bhikshunis are the female monks or nuns, subject to the same rules 
as the bhikshus, and also to special ordinances of restraint. See Hard/s E. M., 
chap. 17. See also Sacred Books of the East, vol. xx, p. 321. 

^ The 6rSmaneras are the novices, male or female, who have vowed to 



46 THE TEA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

make their offerings to Rihula ^ The professors of the Abhidharma * 
make their offerings to it ; those of the Vinaya^ to it. Every year there 
is one such offering, and each class has its own day for it. Students of 
the mahdydna present offerings to the Prajna-p4ramitA^ to Manjuiri*, 
and to Kwan-she-yin '^. When the monks have done receiving their 

observe the ShikshSpada, or ten commandments. FS-hien was himself one of 
them from his childhood. Having heard the Trtsharana, or threefold 
formula of Refuge, — ' I take refuge in Buddha ; the Law ; the Church, — the 
novice undertakes to observe the ten precepts that forbid — (i) destroying life; 
(2) stealing; (3) impurity; (4) lying; (5) intoxicating drinks; (6) eating after 
midday; (7) dancing, singing, music, and stage-plays; (8) garlands, scents, 
unguents, and ornaments; (9) high or broad couches; (10) receiving gold or 
silver.' Davids' Manual, p. 160; Hardy's KM., pp. 23, 24. 

^ The eldest son of SSkyamuni by Ya^odhard. Converted to Buddhism, he 
followed his father as an attendant ; and after Buddha's death became the founder 
of a philosophical realistic school (vaibhdshika). He is now revered as the 
patron saint of all novices, and is to be reborn as the eldest son of every future 
Buddha. Eitel, p. loi; His mother also is to be reborn as Buddha. 

' Note I, page 45. 

' There are six (sometimes increased to ten) pdramitds, 'means of passing 
to nirvdna: — Charit}'; morality; patience; energy; tranquil contemplation; 
wisdom (p raj fid); made up to ten by use of the proper means; science; pious 
vows; and force of purpose. But it is only prajfld which carries men across the 
samsdratothe shores of nirvdna.' Eitel, p. 90. 

* According to Eitel (pp. 71, 72), *A famous Bodhisattva, now specially 
worshipped in Shan-se, whose antecedents are a hopeless jumble of history and 
fable. Fd-hien found him here worshipped by followers of the mah&ydna 
school; but HsUan-chwang connects his worship with the yogachara or 
tantra-magic school. The mahdydna school regard him as the apotheosis of 
perfect wisdom. His most common titles are M ah am at i, "Great wisdom," and 
Kumdra-rdja, ''King of teaching, with a thousand arms and a hundred alms- 
bowls." ' 

' Kwan-she-yin and the dogmas about him or her are as great a mystery as 
Mafiju^rt. The Chinese name is a mistranslation of the Sanskrit name Avalo- 
kite^vara, * On -looking Sovereign,' or even * On -looking Self- Existent,' 
and means 'Regarding or Looking on the sounds of the world,' =' Hearer of 
Prayer.' Originally, and still in Thibet, Avalokite^vara had only male attributes. 



SANKA^VA, 47 

annual tribute (from the harvests) ^ the Heads of the Vai^yas and all 
the Brahmans bring clothes and such other articles as the monks 
require for use, and distribute among them. The monks, having received 
them, also proceed to give portions to one another. From the nirvana 
of Buddha ^ the forms of ceremony, laws, and rules, practised by the 
sacred communities, have been handed down from one generation to 
another without interruption. 

From the place where (the travellers) crossed the Indus to South India, 
and on to the Southern Sea, a distance of forty or fifty thousand 1 e, all 
is level plain. There are no large hill/ with streams (among them) ; 
there are simply the waters of the rivers. ^ 



CHAPTER XVII. 

SANKA^YA. BUDDHA'S ASCENT TO AND DESCENT FROM THE 
TRAYASTRIM^AS HEAVEN, AND OTHER LEGENDS. 

From this they proceeded south-east for eighteen yojanas, and found 
themselves in a kingdom called Sahkd^ya^ at the place where Buddha came 

but in China and Japan (Kwannon), this deity (such popularly she is) is repre- 
sented as a woman, ' Kwan-yin, the greatly gentle, with a thousand arms and a 
thousand eyes;' and has her principal seat in the island of Foo-t'oo, on the China 
coast, which is a regular place of pilgrimage. To the worshippers of whom Fd- 
hien speaks, Kwan-she-yin would only be Avalokite^vara. How he was con- 
verted into the * goddess of mercy,' and her worship took the place which it now 
has in China, is a difficult inquiry, which would take much time and space, and 
not be brought after all, so far as I see, to a satisfactory conclusion. See Eitel's 
Handbook, pp. 18-20, and his Three Lectures on Buddhism (third edition), 
pp. 1 24-131. I was talking on the subject once with an intelligent Chinese 
gentleman, when he remarked, * Have you not much the same thing in Europe in 
the worship of Mary ?' 

^ Compare what is said in chap. v. 

* This nirvina of Buddha must be — not his death, but his attaining to 
Buddhaship. 

' The name is still remaining in Samkassam, a village forty-five miles north- 
west of Canouge, lat. 27° 3' N., Ion, 79° 50' E. 



.7 



i 



1 

V ■ 



/ 



48 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HI EN. 

down, after ascending to the Trayastrim^as heaven^, and there preaching 
for three months his Law for the benefit of his mother^ Buddha had gone 
up to this heaven by his supernatural power^ without letting his disciples 
know ; but seven days before the completion (of the three months) he laid 
aside his invisibility^, and Anuruddha*, with his heavenly eyes*, saw the 
World-honoured one, and immediately said to the honoured one, the 
great Mugalan, * Do you go and salute the World-honoured one.' Mugalan 
forthwith went, and with head and face did homage at (Buddha's) feet. 
They then saluted and questioned each other, and when this was over, 
Buddha said to Mugalan, * Seven days after this I will go down to Jambu- 
dvipa;' and thereupon Mugalan returned. At this time the great kings 
of eight countries with their ministers and people, not having seen Buddha 
for a long time, were all thirstily looking up for him, and had collected 
in clouds in this kingdom to wait for the World-honoured one. 

' The heaven of Indra or Sdkya, meaning * the heaven of thirty-three classes,' 
a name which has been explained both historically and mythologically. * The 
description of it,' says Eitel, p. 148, 'tallies in all respects with the Svarga of 
Brahmanic mythology. It is situated between the four peaks of the Mem, and 
consists of thirty-two cities of devas, eight on each of the four comers of the 
mountain. Indra's capital of Bel lev ue is in the centre. There he is enthroned, 
with a thousand heads and a thousand eyes, and four arms grasping the vajra, 
with his wife and 119,000 concubines. There he receives the monthly reports of 
the four Mahirdjas, concerning the progress of good and evil in the world,' &c. &c. 

* Buddha's mother, Mdyi and Mahdmdya, the mater immaculata of the 
Buddhists, died seven days after his birth. Eitel says, * Reborn in Tushita, she 
was visited there by her son and converted.' The Tushita heaven was a more 
likely place to find her in than the Trayastrim^as ; but was the former a part of 
the latter ? Hardy gives a long account of Buddha's visit to the Trayastrim^ 
(M. B.,pp. 298-302), which he calls Tawutisd, and speaks of his mother (M&tru) 
in it, who had now become a deva by the changing of her sex. 

' Compare the account of the Arhat's conveyance of the artist to the Tushita 
heaven in chap. v. The first expression here is more comprehensive. 

* Anuruddha was a first cousin of ^dkyamuni, being the son of his uncle 
Amritodana, He is often mentioned in the account we have of Buddha's last 
moments. His special gift was the divyachakshus or * heavenly eye,' the first 
of the six abhijflds or 'supernatural talents,* the faculty of comprehending in one 



DESCENT FROM THE THAFASTJRIAf^AS HEA VEN. 49 

Then the bhikshunl Utpala^ thought in her heart, * To-day the kings, 
with their ministers and people, will all be meeting (and welcoming) 
Buddha. I am (but) a woman ; how shall I succeed in being the first to 
see him*?' Buddha immediately, by his spirit-like power, changed 
her into the appearance of a holy Chakravartti^ king, and she was the 
foremost of all in doing reverence to him. 

As Buddha descended from his position aloft in the Trayastriip^as 
heaven, when he was coming down, there were made to appear three 
flights of precious steps. Buddha was on the middle flight, the steps of 
which were composed of the seven precious substances. The king of 
Brahma-loka^ also made a flight of silver steps appear on the right side, 
(where he was seen) attending with a white chowry in his hand, ^akra, 



instantaneous view, or by intuition, all beings in all worlds. 'He could see,' 
says Hardy, M. B., p. 232, ' all things in 100,000 sakvalas as plainly as a mustard 
seed held in the hand.' 

* Eitel gives the name Utpala with the same Chinese phonetisation as in 
the text, but not as the name of any bhikshuni. The Sanskrit word, however, is 
explained by * blue lotus flowers ; ' and Hstian-chwang calls her the nun * Lotus- 
flower colour (^ 3f£ ^)'' — ^^^ sajat as Hardy's Upulwan and Uppalawami. 

■ Perhaps we should read here * to see Buddha,' and then ascribe the transfor- 
mation to the nun herself. It depends on the punctuation which view we adopt ; 
and in the structure of the passage, there is nothing to indicate that the stop 
should be made before or after 'Buddha.' And the one view is as reasonable, or 
rather as unreasonable, as the other. 

■ *A holy king who turns the wheel;' that is, the military conqueror and 
monarch of the whole or part of a universe. *The symbol,* says Eitel (p. 142), 
* of such a king is the chakra or wheel, for when he ascends the throne, a chakra 
falls from heaven, indicating by its material (gold, silver, copper, or iron) the 
extent and character of his reign. The office, however, of the highest Chakra- 
vartti, who hurls his wheel among his enemies, is inferior to the peaceful mission 
of a Buddha, who meekly turns the wheel of the Law, and conquers every universe 
by his teaching.' 

^ This was Brahma, the first person of the Brahmanical Trimurti, adopted by 
Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, and surpassed by every Buddhist 
saint who attains to bodhi. 

h 



50 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

Ruler of Devas\ made (a flight of) steps of purple gold on the left side, 
(where he was seen) attending and holding an umbrella of the seven 
precious substances. An innumerable multitude of the devas ^ followed 
Buddha in his descent. When he was come down, the three flights all 
disappeared in the ground, excepting seven steps, which continued to be 
visible. Afterwards king Aioka, wishing to know where their ends 
rested, sent men to dig and see. They went down to the yellow 
springs^ without reaching the bottom of the steps, and from this the king 
received an increase to his reverence and faith, and built a vih&ra over 
the steps, with a standing image, sixteen cubits in height, right over the 
middle flight. Behind the vih&ra he erected a stone pillar, about flfty 
cubits high ^, with a lion on the top of it ^ Let into the pillar, on each 
of its four sides®, there is an image of Buddha, inside and out'' shining 
and transparent, and pure as it were of lapis lazuli. Some teachers 
of another doctrine ^ once disputed with the Sramanas about (the right 
to) this as a place of residence, and the latter were having the worst of 

* See note 2, p. 30, 
' See note 3, p. 19. 

■ A common name for the earth below, where, on digging, water is found. 

* The height is given as thirty chow, the chow being the distance from the 
elbow to the finger-tip, which is variously estimated. 

^ A note of Mr. Beal says on this : — * General Cunningham, who visited the 
spot (1862), found a pillar, evidently of the age of Aik>ka, with a well-carved 
elephant on the top, which, however, was minus trunk and tail. He supposes this 
to be the pillar seen by Fi-hien, who mistook the top of it for a lion. It is 
possible such a mistake may have been made, as in the account of one of the 
pillars at ^dvastt, Fi-hien says an ox formed the capital, whilst Hstian-chwang 
calls it an elephant (p. 19, Arch. Survey).' 

' That is, in niches on the sides. The pillar or column must have been 
square. 

^ Equivalent to * all through.' 

* Has always been translated 'heretical teachers;' but I eschew the terms 
heresy and heretical. The parties would not be Buddhists of any creed or school, 
but Brahmans or of some other false doctrine, as F&-hien deemed it. The Chinese 
term means 'outside' or 'foreign;' — in P41i, afifia-titthiya,=* those belonging to 
another school.' 



PLACES WHERE TOPES WERE BUILT. 51 

the argument, when they took an oath on both sides on the condition that, 
if the place did indeed belong to the Sramanas, there should be some 
marvellous attestation of it. When these words had been spoken, the lion 
on the top gave a great roar, thus giving the proof; on which their 
opponents were frightened, bowed to the decision, and withdrew. 

Through Buddha having for three months partaken of the food of 
heaven, his body emitted a heavenly fragrance, unlike that of an ordinary 
man. He went immediately and bathed ; and afterwards, at the spot 
where he did so, a bathing-house was built, which is still existing. At 
the place where the bhikshunt Utpala was the first to do reverence to 
Buddha, a tope has now been built. 

At the places where Buddha, when he was in the world, cut his hair 
and nails ^, topes are erected ; and where the three Buddhas ^ that 
preceded o&kyamuni Buddha and he himself sat ; where they walked ^ 
and where images of their persons were made. At all these places 
topes were made, and are still existing. At the place where Sakra, 
Ruler of the Devas, and the king of the Brahma-loka followed Buddha 
down (from the Trayastrim&is heaven) they have also raised a tope. 

At this place the monks and nuns may be a thousand, who all receive 

' See above, p. 39. 

' These three predecessors of Sikyamuni were the three Buddhas of the 
present or Mahd-bhadra Kalpa, of which he was the fourth, and Maitreya is to 
be the fifth and last. They were: (i) Krakuchanda (Pdli, Kakusanda), 'he 
who readily solves all doubts;' a scion of the Ka^yapa family. Human life 
reached in his time 40,000 years, and so many persons were converted by him. 
(2) Kanakamimi (Pdli, Kondgamana), 'body radiant with the colour of pure 
gold ; ' of the same family. Human life reached in his time 30,000 years, and so 
many persons were converted by him. (3) Ki^yapa (Pili, Kassapa), * swallower 
of light' Human life reached in his time 20,000 years, and so many persons 
were converted by him. See Eitel, under the several names ; Hardy's M. B., 
pp. 95-97; and Davids' 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 51. 

* That is, walked in meditation. Such places are called Cbahkramana (Pili, 
Chankama); promenades or corridors connected with a monastery, made 
sometimes with costly stones, for the purpose of peripatetic meditation. The 
* sitting' would be not because of weariness or for rest, but for meditation. £. H., 

P- M4. 



I 

f 



52 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

their food from the common store, and pursue their studies, some of the 
mah&y&na and some of the hinay&na. Where they live, there is a 
white-eared dragon, which acts the part ofd&napati^ to the community 
of these monks, causing abundant harvests in the country, and the en- 
riching rains to come in season, without the occurrence of any calamities, 
so that the monks enjoy their repose and ease. In gratitude for its 
kindness, they have made for it a dragon-house, with a carpet for it 
to sit on, and appointed for it a diet of blessing, which they present for 
its nourishment. Every day they set apart three of their number to go 
to its house, and eat there. Whenever the summer retreat is ended, the 
dragon straightway changes its form, and appears as a small snake', 
with white spots at the side of its ears. As soon as the monks recognise 
it, they fill a copper vessel with cream, into which they put the creature, 
and then carry it round from the one who has the highest seat (at their 
tables) to him who has the lowest, when it appears as if saluting them. 
When it has been taken round, immediately it disappears ; and every 
year it thus comes forth once. The country is very productive, and the 
people are prosperous, and happy beyond comparison. When people of 
other countries come to it, they are exceedingly attentive to them all, 
and supply them with what they need. 

Fifty yojanas north-west from the monastery there is another, called 
y\ • . *The Great Heap^.* Great Heap was the name of a wicked demon, 

who was converted by Buddha, and men subsequently at this place 
reared a vih&ra. When it was being made over to an Arhat by pouring 
water on his hands *, some drops fell on the ground. They are still on 



N . ."' A- 



-'i ' 



• # 



* See note 2, p. 11. 

' The character in my Corean copy is j[|||, which must be a mistake for the 
|}|^ of the Chinese editions. Otherwise, the meaning would be ' a small medusa.' 

' The reading here seems to me a great improvement on that of the Chinese 
editions, which means ' Fire Limit/ Buddha, it is said, ^^ converted this demon^ 
which Chinese character Beal rendered at first by 'in one of his incarnations;' and 
in his revised version he has * himself.' The difference between F&-hien's usage of 
j/j^ and ^ throughout his narrative is quite marked. ^ always refers to the 
doings of ^dkyamuni; ^, 'formerly/ is often used of him and others in the 
sense of ' in a former age or birth/ 

* See Hardy, M. B., p. 194: — *As a token of the giving over of the garden, 



LEGENDS. KANYAKUBJA. 53 

the spot, and however they may be brushed away and removed, they 
continue to be visible, and cannot be made to disappear. 

At this place there is also a tope to Buddha, where a good spirit 
constantly keeps (all about it) swept and watered, without any labour of 
man being required. A king of corrupt views once said, * Since you are 
able to do this, I will lead a multitude of troops and reside there till the 
dirt and filth has increased and accumulated, and (see) whether you can 
cleanse it away or not.' The spirit thereupon raised a great wind, which 
blew (the filth away), and made the place pure. 

At this place there are a hundred small topes, at which a man may keep 
counting a whole day without being able to know (their exact number). 
If he be firmly bent on knowing it, he will place a man by the side 
of each tope. When this is done, proceeding to count the number of 
the men, whether they be many or few, he will not get to know (the 
number)^. 

There is a monastery, containing perhaps 600 or 700 monks, in which 
there is a place where a Pratyeka Buddha* used to take his food. 
The nirv&na ground (where he was burned ^ after death) is as large as a 
carriage wheel; and while grass grows all around, on this spot there 
is none. The ground also where he dried his clothes produces no grass, 
but the impression of them, where they lay on it, continues to the 
present day, 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

KANYAkUBJA, or CANOUGE. BUDDHA'S PREACHING. 

FA-HIEN stayed at the Dragon vihdra till after the summer retreat*, 
and then, travelling to the south-east for seven yojanas, he arrived at the 

the king poured water upon the hands of Buddha ; and from this time it became 
one of the principal residences of the sage.' 

* This would seem to be absurd ; but the writer evidently intended to convey 
the idea that there was something mysterious about the number of the topes. 

' See note 2, p. 40. 

' This seems to be the meaning. The bodies of the monks are all burned. 
Hard/s E. M., pp, 322-324. 
. .* We are now, probably, in 405. 



54 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

city of Kanydkubja^ lying along the Ganges*. There are two monas- 
teries in it, the inmates of which are students of the htnay&na* At a 
distance from the city of six or seven le, on the west, on the northern bank 
of the Ganges, is a place where Buddha preached the Law to his disciples. 
It has been handed down that his subjects of discourse were such as ' The 
bitterness and vanity (of life) as impermanent and uncertain,' and that 
* The body is as a bubble or foam on the water/ At this spot a tope 
was erected, and still exists. 

Having crossed the Ganges, and gone south for three yojanas, (the 
travellers) arrived at a village named A-le^ containing places where 
Buddha preached the Law, where he sat, and where he walked, at all 
of which topes have been built 

CHAPTER XIX. 

SHA-CHE. LEGEND OF BUDDHA'S DANTA-kASHTHA. 

Going on from this to the south-east for three yojanas, they came to 
the great kingdom of Sh4-che*, As you go out of the city of Shi-che by 
the southern gate, on the east of the road (is the place) where Buddha, 
after he had chewed his willow branch ^, stuck it in the ground, when it 



' Canouge, the latitude and longitude of which have been given in a previous 
note. The Sanskrit name means 'the city of humpbacked maidens;* with 
reference to the legend of the hundred daughters of king Brahma-datta, who 
were made deformed by the curse of the rishi Mahd-vriksha, whose overtures they 
had refused. £. H., p. 51. 

■ Gahgi, explained by 'Blessed water/ and *Come from heaven to earth.' 

' This village (the Chinese editions read 'forest') has hardly been clearly 
identified. 

^ Shi-che should probably be Sh&-khe, making Cunningham's identifica* 
don of the name with the present Saket still more likely. The change of 
|p£ into j|^ is slight; and, indeed, the Khang-hst dictionary thinks the two 
characters should be but one and the same. ■ -.. ^^c■^ 

^ This was, no doubt, what was called the danta-kdshtha, or 'dental wood,' 
mostly a bit of the He us Indicus or banyan tree, which the monk chews every 
morning to cleanse his teeth, and for the purpose of health generally. The 



BUDDHA'S DANTA^KASHTHA. :§RAVASTI. 55 

forthwith grew up seven cubits, (at which height it remained) neither 
increasing nor diminishing. The Brahmans with their contrary doctrines ^ ' 
became angry and jealous. Sometimes they cut the tree down, some- 
times they plucked it up, and cast it to a distance, but it grew again on the 
same spot as at first. Here also is the place where the four Buddhas 
^walked and sat, and at which a tope was built that is still existing. 



CHAPTER XX. 

KO^ALA AND iSrAvASTI. THE JETAVANA VIHARA AND OTHER 
MEMORIALS AND LEGENDS OF BUDDHA. SYMPATHY OF THE 
MONKS WITH THE PILGRIMS. 

Going on from this to the south, for eight yojanas, (the travellers) 
came to the city of ordvastt ^ in the kingdom of Koiala ^, in which the 
inhabitants were few and far between, amounting in all (only) to a few more 
than two hundred families ; the city where king Prasenajit ^ ruled, and 
the place of the old vih&ra of Mah&-praj&patt^; of the well and walls of 

Chinese, not having the banyan, have used, or at least F&-hien used, Yang 
(1^» the general name for the willow) instead of it. 

^ Are two classes of opponents, or only one, intended here, so that we should 
read 'all the unbelievers and Brahmans,' or 'heretics and Brahmans?' I think 
the Brahmans were also ' the unbelievers ' and ' heretics,' having ^K j^, views 
and ways outside of, and opposed to, Buddha's. 

' In Singhalese, Sewet; here evidently the capital of Ko^ala. It is placed 
by Cunningham (Archaeological Survey) on the south bank of the Rapti, 
about fifty-eight miles north of Ayodyd or Oude. There are still the ruins of a 
great town, the name being Sdhet Mihat It was in this town, or in its neighbour- 
hood, that ^dkyamuni spent many years of his life after he became Buddha. 

* There were two Indian kingdoms of this name, a southern and northern. 
This was the northern, a part of the present Oudh. 

^ In Singhalese, Pase-na^i^ meaning ' leader of the victorious army.' He was 
one of the earliest converts and chief patrons of S&kyamuni. Eitel calls him 
(p. 95) one of the originators of Buddhist idolatry, because of the statue which is 
mentioned in this chapter. See Hardy's M. B., pp. 283, 284, et al. 

* Explained by ' Path of Love,' and * Lord of Life.' PrajSpatt was aunt and 



56 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

(the house of) the (Vai^ya) head Sudatta^; and where the Angfulim^iya • 
became an Arhat, and his body was (afterwards) burned on his attaining 
to pari-nirvina. At all these places topes were subsequently erected, 
which are still existing in the city. The Brahmans, with their contrary 
doctrine, became full of hatred and envy in their hearts, and wished 
to destroy them, but there came from the heavens such a storm of 
crashing thunder and flashing lightning that they were not able in the 
end to effect their purpose. 

. As you go out from the city by the south gate, and i,aoo paces 
from it, the (Vai^ya) head Sudatta built a vihira, facing the south; 
and when the door was open, on each side of it there was a stone 
pillar, with the figure of a wheel on the top of that on the left, and 
the figfure of an ox on the top of that on the right. On the left and 
right of the building the ponds of water clear and pure, the thickets 
of trees always luxuriant, and the numerous flowers of various hues, 
constituted a lovely scene, the whole forming what is called the Jetavana 
vihdra^ 

When Buddha went up to the Trayastriip^as heaven \ and preached 
the Law for the benefit of his mother*, (after he had been absent for) 

nurse of ^dkyamuni, the first woman admitted to the monkhood, and the first 
superior of the first Buddhistic convent. She is yet to become a Buddha. 

^ Sudatta, meaning < almsgiver,' was the original name of An&tha-pindika (or 
Pindada), a wealthy householder, or Vai^ya head, of l^rdvastf, famous for his 
hberality (Hardy, Anepidu). Of his old house, only the well and walls remained 
at the time of Fi-hien*s visit to ^rdvastt. 

* The Ahgulimilya were a sect or set of Sivaitic fanatics, who made assassi- 
nation a religious act. The one of them here mentioned had joined them by 
the force of circumstances. Being converted by Buddha, he became a monk; but 
when it is said in the text that he ' got the Tdo,' or doctrine, I think that express 
sion implies more than his conversion, and is equivalent to his becoming an Axhat. 
His name in Pdli is Ahgulim&Ia. That he did become an Arhat is clear from his 
autobiographical poem in the * Songs of the Theras.' 

' Eitel (p. 37) says: — *A noted vihSra in the suburbs of Sr&vasti, erected 
in a park which An&tha-pin^ika bought of prince Jeta, the son of Prasenajit. 
^dkyamuni made this place his favourite residence for many years. Most of the 
Sfttras (authentic and supposititious) date from this spot.' 

^ See chapter xvii. 



IMAGE OF BUDDHA. S7 

ninety days, Prasenajit, longing to see him, caused an image of him 
to be carved in Go^irsha Chandana wood\ and put in the place 
where he usually sat. When Buddha on his return entered the vih4ra, 
this image immediately left its place, and came forth to meet him. 
Buddha said to it, * Return to your seat. After I have attained to 
pari-nirv&na, you will serve as a pattern to the four classes of my 
disciples V and on this the image returned to its seat. This was the 
very first of all the images (of Buddha), and that which men subse- 
quently copied. Buddha then removed, and dwelt in a small vihira 
on the south side (of the other), a different place from that containing 
the image, and twenty paces distant from it. 

The Jetavana vih&ra was originally of seven storeys. The kings and 
people of the countries around vied with one another in their offerings, 
hanging up about it silken streamers and canopies, scattering flowers, 
burning incense, and lighting lamps, so as to make the night as bright as 
the day. This they did day after day without ceasing. (It happened 
that) a rat, carrying in its mouth the wick of a lamp, set one of the 
streamers or canopies on fire, which caught the vih4ra, and the seven 
storeys were all consumed. The kings, with their officers and people, were 
all very sad and distressed, supposing that the sandal-wood image had 
been burned ; but lo ! after four or five days, when the door of a small 
vih&ra on the east was opened, there was immediately seen the original 
image. They were all greatly rejoiced, and co-operated in restoring the 
vih&ra. When they had succeeded in completing two storeys, they 
removed the image back to its former place. 

When F4-hien and T4o-ching first arrived at the Jetavana monas- 
tery, and thought how the World -honoured one had formerly resided 

* See chapter xiii. 

' Arya, meaning 'honourable,' 'venerable,' is a title given only to those 
who have mastered the four spiritual truths: — (i) that 'misery' is a necessary 
condition of all sentient existence; this is duhkha: (2) that the 'accumulation' 
of misery is caused by the passions; this is samudaya: (3) that the 'extinc- 
tion' of passion is possible; this is nirodha: and (4) that the 'path' leads to 
the extinction of passion; which is mirga. According to their attainment of 
these truths, the Aryas,or followers of Buddha, are distinguished into four classes, 
— ^rot&pannas, SakridSgSmins, Andg&mins, and Arhats. E. H., p. 14. 



58 THE TRA VELS OF fA^HIEN. 

there for twenty-five years, painful reflections arose in their minds. 
Bom in a border-land, along with their like-minded friends, they had 
travelled through so many kingdoms ; some of those friends had returned 
(to their own land), and some had (died), proving the impermanence and 
uncertainty of life; and to-day they saw the place where Buddha had 
lived now unoccupied by him. They were melancholy through their pain 
of heart, and the crowd of monks came out, and asked them from what 
kingdom they were come. * We are come,' they replied, * from the land 
of Han.' * Strange,* said the monks with a sigh, * that men of a border 
country should be able to come here in search of our Law I' Then they 
said to one another, * During all the time that we, preceptors and 
monks ^, have succeeded to one another, we have never seen men of Han, 
followers of our system, arrive here.' 

Four le to the north-west of the vih4ra there is a grove called *The 
Getting of Eyes.* Formerly there were five hundred blind men, who 
lived here in order that they might be near the vih4ra*. Buddha 

^ This is the first time that Fd-hien employs the name Ho-shang 
(^1^ fS^), which is now popularly used in China for all Buddhist monks 
without distinction of rank or office. It is the representative of the Sanskrit 
term Upadhydya, 'explained,' says Eitel (p. 155), by *a self-taught teacher/ 
or by 'he who knows what is sinful and what is not sinful,* with the note, 
' In India the vernacular of this term is ^ jjj^ (? munshee [? Bonze]) ; in Kustana 
and Kashgar they say ^^ jj{£ (hwa-shay) ; and from the latter term are derived 

the Chinese synonyms, ^ ^ (ho-shay) and ^ |iS^ (ho-shang).' The Indian 
term was originally a designation for those who teach only a part of the Vedas, 
the Veddhgas. Adopted by Buddhists of Central Asia, it was made to signify the 
priests of the older ritual, in distinction from the Lamas. In China it has been 
used first as a synonym for j^ 0j0, monks engaged in popular teaching (teachers 

of the Law), in distinction from ^ 0j0, disciplinists, and ||^ 0j0, contemplative 
philosophers (meditationists) ; then it was used to designate the abbots of monas- 
teries. But it is now popularly applied to all Buddhist monks. In the text there 
seems to be implied some distinction between the 'teachers' and the 'ho-shang;' 
— probably, the Pdli A^iya and Upa^^^dya; see Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xiii, Vinaya Texts, pp. 178, 179. 

* It might be added, 'as depending on it,' in order to bring out the fiill 
meaning of the "^ in the text. If I recollect aright, the help of the police 



THE JETAVANA VIHARA. 59 

preached his Law to them, and they all got back their eyesight. Full 
of joy, they stuck their staves in the earth, and with their heads and 
faces on the ground, did reverence. The staves immediately b^an to 
grow, and they grew to be great. People made much of them, and no one 
dared to cut them down, so that they came to form a grove. It was in 
this way that it got its name, and most of the Jetavana monks, after 
they had taken their midday meal, went to the grove, and sat there in 
meditation. 

Six or seven le north-east from the Jetavana, mother Vai&ikha ^ built 
another vih&ra, to which she invited Buddha and his monks, and which 
is still existing. 

To each of the great residences for the monks at the Jetavana 
vihdra there were two grates, one facing the east and the other facing the 
north. The park (containing the whole) was the space of ground which 
the (Vai^ya) head Sudatta purchased by covering it with gold coins. 
The vih&ra was exactly in the centre. Here Buddha lived for a longer 
time than at any other place, preaching his Law and converting men. 
At the places where he walked and sat they also (subsequently) reared 
topes, each having its particular name ; and here was the place where 
Sundari^ murdered a person and then falsely charged Buddha (with the 
crime). Outside the east gate of the Jetavana, at a distance of seventy 
paces to the north, on the west of the road, Buddha held a discussion 

had to be called in at Hongkong in its early years, to keep the approaches to 
the Cathedral free from the number of beggars, who squatted down there during 
service, hoping that the hearers would come out with softened hearts, and disposed 
to be charitable. I found the popular tutelary temples in Peking and other places, 
and the path up Mount T'di in Shan-lung similarly frequented. 

^ The wife of Anitha-pindika in note i, p. 56, and who became 'mother- 
superior' of many nunneries. See her history in M. B., pp. 220-227. I am 
surprised it does not end with the statement that she is to become a Buddha. 

* See E. H., p. 136. Hstian-chwang does not give the name of this murderer; 
see in Julien's *Vie et Voyages de Hiouen-thsang,' p. 125, — *a heretical Brahman 
killed a woman and calumniated Buddha.' See also the fuller account in Beal's 
'Records of Western Countries,' pp. 7, 8, where the murder is committed by 
several Brahmachirins. In this passage Beal makes Sundari to be the name 
of the murdered person (a harlot). But the text cannot be so construed. 

i % 



6o THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIE N. 

with the (advocates of the) ninety-six schemes of erroneous doctrine, 
when the king and his great officers, the householders, and people were 
all assembled in crowds to hear it. Then a woman belonging to one of the 
erroneous systems, by name Chanchamana ^, prompted by the envious 
hatred in her heart, and having put on (extra) clothes in front of her 
person, so as to give her the appearance of being with child, falsely accused 
Buddha before all the assembly of having acted unlawfully (towards her). 
On this, Sakra, Ruler of Devas, changed himself and some devas into white 
mice, which bit through the strings about her waist ; and when this was 
done, the (extra) clothes which she wore dropt down on the ground. 
The earth at the same time was rent, and she went (down) alive into 
hell ^. (This) also is the place where Devadatta^ trying with empoisoned 
claws to injure Buddha, went down alive into hell. Men subsequently 
set up marks to distinguish where both these events took place. 

Further, at the place where the discussion took place, they reared a 
vihira rather more than sixty cubits high, having in it an image of 
Buddha in a sitting posture. On the east of the road there was a devi- 
laya* of (one of) the contrary systems, called *The Shadow Covered/ 

* Eitel (p. 144) calls her Chancha; in Singhalese, Chinchi. See the stoiy 
about her, M. B., pp. 275-277. 

* 'Earth's prison,' or *one of Earth's prisons.' It was the Avlchi n&raka 
to which she went, the last of the eight hot prisons, where the culprits die, and 
are bom again in uninterrupted succession (such being the meaning of Avtchi), 
though not without hope of final redemption, E. H., p. 21. 

' Devadatta was brother of Ananda, and a near relative therefore of 
Sdkyamuni. He was the deadly enemy, however, of the latter. He had 
become so in an eariier state of existence, and the hatred continued in every 
successive birth, through which they reappeared in the world. See the accounts 
of him, and of his various devices against Buddha, and his own destruction at 
the last, in M. B., pp. 315-321, 326-330; and still better, in the Sacred Books of 
the East, vol. xx, Vinaya Texts, pp. 233-265. For the particular attempt referred 
to in the text, see* The Life of the Buddha,* p. 107. When he was engulphed, 
and the flames were around him, he cried out to Buddha to save him, and we 
are told that he is expected yet to appear as a Buddha under the name of Deva- 
rSja, in a universe called Deva-soppana. E. H., p. 39. 

* ' A devdlaya (^f^ ^ or ^ ^^, a place in which a deva is worshipped. 



THE SHADOW^COVERED DEVALAYA. 6i 

right opposite the vih&ra on the place of discussion, with (only) the road 
between them, and also rather more than sixty cubits high. The reason 
why it was called * The Shadow Covered ' was this : — When the sun 
was in the west, the shadow of the vihira of the World-honoured one fell 
on thedev&laya of a contrary system ; but when the sun was in the east, 
the shadow of that dev&laya was diverted to the north, and never fell 
on the vihAra of Buddha. The mal-believers regularly employed men 
to watch their devil ay a, to sweep and water (all about it), to bum 
incense, light the lamps, and present offering^ ; but in the morning the 
lamps were found to have been suddenly removed, and in the vih&ra 
of Buddha. The Brahmans were indignant, and said, ' Those Sramanas 
take our lamps and use them for their own service of Buddha, but we 
will not stop our service for you ^ I ' On that night the Brahmans them- 
selves kept watch, when they saw the deva spirits which they served 
take the lamps and go three times round the vihira of Buddha and present 
offerings. After this ministration to Buddha they suddenly disappeared. 
The Brahmans thereupon knowing how great was the spiritual power of 
Buddha, forthwith left their families, and became monks ^. It has 
been handed down, that, near the time when these things occurred, 
around the Jetavana vih&ra there were ninety-eight monasteries, in all 



— a general name for all Brahmanical temples ' (Eitel, p. 30). We read in the 
Khang-hsi dictionary under ^, that when Ka^yapa Matahga came to the 
capital in the time of the emperor Ming of the second Han dynasty, from the 
Western Regions, with his Classics or SAtras, he was lodged in the Court of . >, 
State-Ceremonial,^ and that afterwards there was built for him *The Court r^/ •: V ,^ 
of the White-horse' (Q ^^ ^), and in consequence the name of Sze i^jf) 
came to be given to all Buddhistic temples./' Fd-hien, however, applies this 
term only to Brahmanical temples. 

* Their speech was somewhat unconnected, but natural enough in the circum- 
stances. Compare the whole account with the narrative in i Samuel v. about the 
Ark and Dagon, that * twice-battered god of Palestine.* 

' 'Entered the doctrine or path.' Three stages in the Buddhistic life are 
indicated by Fd-hien : — * entering it/ as here, by becoming monks (A ^M") > 

W »)' ^^^ 'completing it,' by becoming 
Buddha (j^ ^). 



,^J^/>^ It^ \^' '% ' " ^' ^-' ■ ^^^ 



i 



62 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN, 

of which there were monks residing, excepting only in one place which 
was vacant. In this Middle Kingdom ^ there are ninety-six * sorts of 
views, erroneous and different from our system, all of which realise 
this world and the future world ^ (and the connexion between them). 
Each has its multitude of followers, and they all beg their food : only 
they do not carry the alms-bowl. They also, moreover, seek (to acquire) 
the blessing (of good deeds) on unfrequented ways, setting up on the 
road-side houses of charity, where rooms, couches, beds, and food and 
drink are supplied to travellers^ and also to monks, coming and going 
as guests, the only difference being in the time (for which those parties 
remain). 

There are also companies of the followers of Devadatta still existing. 
They regularly make offerings to the three previous Buddhaa, but not 
to !^ikyamuni Buddha ^. 

Four le south-east from the city of Srdvastt, a tope has been 

^ It is not quite clear whether the author had in mind here Central India as 
a whole, which I think he had, or only Ko^ala, the part of it where he then 
was. In the older teaching, there were only thirty-two sects, but there may have 
been three subdivisions of each. See Rhys Davids* ' Buddhism,' pp. 98, 99. 

' This mention of 'the future world' is an important difference between 
the Corean and Chinese texts. The want of it in the latter has been a 
stumbling-block in the way of all previous translators. Rdmusat says in a note 
that ' the heretics limited themselves to speak of the duties of man in his actoal 
life without connecting it by the notion of the metempsychosis with the anterior 
periods of existence through which he had passed.' But this is just the opposite 
of what Fd-hien's meaning was, according to our Corean text. The notion 
of 'the metempsychosis' was just that in which all the ninety-six erroneous 
systems agreed among themselves and with Buddhism. If he had wished to 
say what the French sinologue thinks he does say, moreover, he would probably 
have written ^ ^ ^ jH^ ^' Let me add, however, that the connexion 
which Buddhism holds between the past world (including the present) and the 
future is not that of a metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls, for it does not 
appear to admit any separate existence of the soul. Adhering to its own 
phraseology of * the wheel,' I would call its doctrine that of * The Transrotation 
of Births.' See Rhys Davids' third Hibbert Lecture. 

' See p. 60, note 3 ; and p. 51, note 2. 



L /? 



THE PREDECESSORS OF SAKYAMUNL 63 

erected at the place where the World-honoured one encountered king 
Virfldhaha^jwhen he wished to attack the kingdom of Shay-e'^, and took 
his stand before him at the side of the road ^. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE THREE PREDECESSORS OF SAkYAMUNI IN THE 

BUDDHASHIP. 

Fifty le to the west of the city bring (the traveller) to a town 
named Too-wei *, the birthplace of Kdiyapa Buddha ^. At the place 
where he and his father met*, and at that where he attained to par i- 
nirv&na, topes were erected. Over the entire relic of the whole body 
of him, the Kdiyapa Tath&gata ^, a great tope was also erected. 

^ Or, more according to the phonetisation of the text, Vaidiirya. He was 
king of Ko^ala, the son and successor of Prasenajit, and the destroyer of 
Kapilavastu, the city of the ^ikya family. His hostility to the Sdkyas is 
sufficiently established, and it may be considered as certain that the name Shay-e, 
which, according to Julien*s * M^thode,' p. 89, may be read Chi^-e, is the same 
as Rii-e (3^ ^), one of the phonetisations of Kapilavastu, as given by Eitel. 

• This would be the interview in the *Life of the Buddha' in Trtlbner's 
Oriental Series, p. 116, when ViHidhaha on his march found Buddha under 
an old sakotato tree. It afforded him no shade; but he told the king that 
the thought of the danger of * his relatives and kindred made it shady.' The 
king was moved to sympathy for the time, and went back to ^rdvastt ; but the 
destruction of Kapilavastu was only postponed for a short space, and Buddha 
himself acknowledged it to be inevitable in the connexion of cause and effect. 

' Identified, as Beal says, by Cunningham with Tadwa, a village nine miles to 
the west of Sdhara-mahat. The birthplace of Ki^yapa Buddha is generally 
thought to have been Benires. According to a calculation of R^musat, from his 
birth to A.D. 1832 there were 1,992,859 years ! 

^ It seems to be necessary to have a meeting between every Buddha and his 
father. One at least is ascribed to ^ikyamuni and his father (real or supposed) 
l^uddhodana. 

* This is the highest epithet given to every supreme Buddha; in Chinese 
jIU ^» meaning, as Eitel, p. 147, says, ' Sic profectus sum/ It is equivalent 
to * Rightful Buddha, the true successor in the Supreme Buddha Line/ Hardy 









64 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

Going on south-east from the city of i^rAvasti for twelve yojanas, 
\% I (the travellers) came to a town named Na-pei-ke4^, the birthplace of 

Krakuchanda Buddha^. At the place where he and his father met, 
and at that where he attained to pari -nirvdna, topes were erected. 
Going north from here less than a yojana, they came to a town which 
had been the birthplace of Kanakamuni Buddha *. At the place where he 
and his father met, and where he attained to pari-nirv4na, topes were 
erected. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

KAPILAVASTU. ITS DESOLATION. LEGENDS OF BUDDHA'S BIRTH, \ 
AND OTHER INCIDENTS IN CONNEXION WITH IT. 

Less than a yojana to the east from this brought them to the dty of 
Kapilavastu ^ ; but in it there was neither king nor people. All was 
mound and desolation. Of inhabitants there were only some monks 
and a score or two of families of the common people. At the spot 
where stood the old palace of king Suddhodana ^ there have been made 



concludes his account of the K&^yapa Buddha (M. B., p. 97) with the following 
sentence: — 'After his body was burnt, the bones still remained in their usual 
position, presenting the appearance of a perfect skeleton ; and the whole of the 
inhabitants of Jambudvtpa, assembling, together, erected a dagoba over his relics 
one yojana in height V 

^ Na-pei-ked or Nabhiga is not mentioned elsewhere. Eitel says this Buddha 
was bom at the city of Gdn-ho (^ 5(<P ifi)f and Hardy gives his birthplace 
as Mekhala. It may be possible, by means of Sanskrit, to reconcile these 
statements. 

' See note 2, p. 51. 

' Kapilavastu, * the city of beautiful virtue,' was the birthplace of ^Skyamuni, 
but was destroyed, as intimated in the notes on last chapter, during his life- 
time. It was situated a short distance north-west of the present Goruckpoor, 
lat. 26** 46' N., Ion. 83° 19' E. Davids says (Manual, p. 25), *It was on the 
banks of the river Rohini, the modem Kohana, about 100 miles north-west of 
the city of Bendres.' 

* The father, or supposed father, of ^Skyamuni. He is here called * the king 
white and pure ' (Q -J^ ^). A more common appellation is * the king of pure 







i mtf/- ,.,/ :» 




1. DREAM OF BUDDHA'S MOTHER OF HIS INCARNATION. 



KAPILAVASTU. 65 

images of the prince (his eldest son) and his mother^; and at the places 
where that son appeared mounted on a white elephant when he entered 
his mother's womb^, and where he turned his carriage round on seeing the 
sick man after he had gone out of the city by the eastern gate ^, topes 
have been erected. The places (were also pointed out) * where (the rishi) 
A-e * inspected the marks ® (of Buddhaship on the body) of the heir- 
apparent (when an infant) ; where, when he was in company with Nanda 
and others, on the elephant being struck down and drawn on one side, 
he tossed it away "^ ; where he shot an arrow to the south-east, and it 



rice (J^ ^ D>' hut the character ^, or 'rice/ must be a mistake for^, 
' Brahman/ and the appellation =' Pure Brahman king/ 

* The * eldest son ' or ' prince' was 6dkyamuni, and his mother had no other son. 
For * his mother,' see note 2, page 48. She was a daughter of Afijana or Anusdkya, 
king of the neighbouring country of Koli, and Yaiodhard, an aunt of duddhodana. 
There appear to have been various intermarriages between the royal houses of 
Kapila and Koli. 

' In 'The Life of the Buddha/ p. 15, we read that 'Buddha was now in the 
Tushita heaven, and knowing that his time was come (the time for his last rebirth 
in the course of which he would become Buddha), he made the necessary examina- 
tions ; and having decided that Mah^-mdyd was the right mother, in the midnight 
watch he entered her womb under the appearance of an elephant.' See M. B., 
pp. 140-143, and, still better, Rhys Davids' 'Birth Stories/ pp. 58-63. 

• In Hardy's M. B., pp. 154, 155, we read, ' As the prince (Siddhirtha, the first 
name given to Sdkyamuni ; see Eitel, under Sarvdrthasiddha) was one day pass- 
ing along, he saw a deva under the appearance of a leper, full of sores, with a body 
like a water- vessel, and legs like the pestle for pounding rice ; and when he learned 
from his charioteer what it was that he saw, he became agitated, and returned at 
once to the palace/ See also Rhys Davids' ' Buddhism,' p. 29. 

* This is an addition of my own, instead of ' There are also topes erected 
at the following spots ' of former translators. F&-hien does not say there were 
memorial topes at all these places. 

^ Asita; see Eitel* p. 15. He is called in P&li KalS Devala, and had been a 
minister of ^uddhodana's father. 

• See note 2, page 39. 

•, \ In^The Life of the Buddha' we read that the Lichchhavis of Vaisdlthad sent to 
the young prince a very fine elephant ; but when it was near Kapilavastu^ Devadatta^ 

k 



66 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HI EN, 

went a distance of thirty le, then entering the ground and making a 
spring to come forth, which men subsequently fashioned into a well 
from which travellers might drink '^; where, after he had attained to 
Wisdom ^ Buddha returned and saw the king, his father ' ; where five 
hundred ^llkyas quitted their families and did reverence to Upftli * while 
the earth shook and moved in six different ways ; where Buddha preached 
his Law to the devas, and the four deva kings and others kept the four 
doors (of the hall), so that (even) the king, his father, could not enter ^ ; 
where Buddha sat under a nyagrodha tree, which is still standing®, with 
his face to the east, and (his aunt) Mahd-prajclpati presented him with a 

out of envy, killed it with a blow of his fist. Nanda (not Ananda, but a half-brother 
of Siddhdrtha), coming that way, saw the carcase lying on the road, and pulled it on 
one side ; but the Bodhisattva, seeing it there, took it by the tail, and tossed it over 
seven fences and ditches, when the force of its fall made a great ditch. I suspect 
that the characters in the column have been disarranged, and that we should 
read ^ ^ ^ ^, ^ ^, ^ ^. Buddha, that is Siddh&rtha,- was 
at this time only ten years old. 

* The young ^dkyas were shooting when the prince thus surpassed them all. 
He was then seventeen. 

* See note 2, page 61. 

' This was not the night when he finally fled from Kapilavastu, and as he 
was leaving the palace, perceived his sleeping father, and said, * Father, though I 
love thee, yet a fear possesses me, and I may not stay ;'— The Life of the Buddha, 
p. 25. Most probably it was that related in M. B., pp. 199-204. See * Buddhist 
Birth Stories,' pp. 120-127. 

* They did this, I suppose, to show their humility, for Upili was only a 
Sddra by birth, and had been a barber ; so from the first did Buddhism assert its 
superiority to the conditions of rank and caste. Upali was distinguished by his 
knowledge of the rules of discipline, and praised on that account by Buddha. He 
was one of the three leaders of the first synod, and the principal compiler of the 
original Vinaya books. 

* I have not met with the particulars of this preaching. 

* Meaning, as explained in Chinese, * a tree without knots ; ' the ficus Indica, 
See Rhys Davids* note. Manual, p. 39, where he says that a branch of one of these 
trees was taken from Buddha Gayd to Anuridhapura in Ceylon in the middle 
of the third century B.C., and is still growing there, the oldest historical tree 
in the world. 




in. BUDDHA TOSSING THE ELEPHANT OVER THE WALL. 




11. BUDDHA JUST BORN, WITH THE NAGAS SUPPLYING WATER TO WASH HIM. Cb. «. 



BIRTH OF BUDDHA. 67 

Sanghdli ^ ; and (where) king Vaidftrya slew the seed of SAkya, and they 
all m dying became orotdpannas^ A tope was erected at this last 
place, which is still existing. 

Several le north-east from the city was the king s field, where the heir- 
apparent sat under a tree, and looked at the ploughers ^. 

Fifty le east from the city was a garden, named Lumbini*, where 
the queen entered the pond and bathed. Having come forth from the 
pond on the northern bank, after (walking) twenty paces, she lifted up 
her hand, laid hold of a branch of a tree, and, with her face to the east, 
gave birth to the heir-apparent *. When he fell to the ground, he (imme- 
diately) walked seven paces. Two dragon-kings (appeared) and washed 
his body. At the place where they did so, there was immediately formed 
a well, and from it, as well as from the above pond, where (the queen) 
bathed®, the monks (even) now constantly take the water, and 
drink it. 

^ See note i, page 39. I have not met with the account of this presenta- 
tion. See the long account of PrajSpatt in M. B., pp. 306-315. 

* See note 2, page 57. The ^rotipannas are the first class of saints, 
who are not to be reborn in a lower sphere, but attain to nirvina after having 
been reborn seven times consecutively as men or devas. The Chinese editions 
state there were * 1000 ' of the ^dkya seed. The general account is that they were 
500, all maidens, who refused to take their place in king Vaid^rya's harem, and 
were in consequence taken to a pond, and had their hands and feet cut off. 
There Buddha came to them, had their wounds dressed, and preached to them 
the Law. They died in the faith, and were reborn in the region of the four Great 
Kings. Thence they came back and visited Buddha at Jetavana in the night, and 
there they obtained the reward of ^rotdpaima. ,. ' The Life of the Buddha,' p. 121. 

* See the account of this in M. B., p. 150. The account of it reminds me of 
the ploughing by the sovereign, which has been an institution in China from the 
earliest times. But there we have no magic and no extravagance. 

* * The place of Liberation ; ' see note 2, page 38. 

* See the accounts of this event in M. B., pp. 145, 146; *The Life of the 
Buddha,' pp. 15, 16; and * Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. (id. 

* There is difficulty in construing the text of this last statement. Mr. Beal 
had, no doubt inadvertendy, omitted it in his first translation. In his revised 
version he gives for it, I cannot say happily, * As well as at the pool, the water of 
which came down from above for washing (the child).* 









68 THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

There are four places of regular and fixed occurrence (in the history 
of) all Buddhas : — first, the place where they attained to perfect Wisdom 
(and became Buddha) ; second, the place where they turned the wheel of 
the Law ^ ; third, the place where they preached the Law, discoursed of 
righteousness, and discomfited (the advocates of) erroneous doctrines; 
and fourth, the place where they came down, after going up to the Traya- 
strim^s heaven to preach the Law for the benefit of their mothers. 
Other places in connexion with them became remarkable, according to 
the manifestations which were made at them at particular times. 

The country of Kapilavastu is a great scene of empty desolation. 
The inhabitants are few and far between. On the roads people have 
to be on their guard against white elephants^ and lions, and should 
not travel incautiously. 

CHAPTER XXIIL 

RAMA, AND ITS TOPE. 

East from Buddha's birthplace, and at a distance of five yojanas, ther6 
IS a kingdom called R&ma ^. The king of this country, having obtained 
one portion of the relics of Buddha's body *, returned with it and builf 
over it a tope, named the R&ma tope. By the side of it there was a 
pool, and in the pool a dragon, which constantly kept watch over (the 
tope), and presented offerings at it day and night. When king A^oka 

* See note 3, page 49. See also Davids' Manual, p. 45. The latter says, 
that * to turn the wheel of the Law * means * to set rolling the royal chariot wheel 
of a universal empire of truth and righteousness ; ' but he admits that this is more 
grandiloquent than the phraseology was in the ears of Buddhists. I prefer the 
words quoted from Eitel in the note referred to. * They turned ' is probably equiva- 
lent to * They began to turn.' 

* Fa-hien does not say that he himself saw any of these white elephants, 
nor does he speak of the lions as of any particular colour. We shall find by- 
and-by, in a note further on, that, to make them appear more terrible, they are 
spoken of as ' black.' 

' RSma or RdmagrSma, between Kapilavastu and Ku&inagara. 
. * See the account of the eightfold division of the relics of Buddha's body in 
the Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, Buddhist Suttas, pp. 133-136. 



THE TOPE OF RAMA. 69 

Came forth into the world, he wished to destroy the eight topes (over the 
relics), and to build (instead of them) 84,000 topes ^. After he had 
thrown down the seven (others), he wished next to destroy this tope. 
But then the dragon showed itself, took the king into its palace * ; and 
when he had seen all the things provided for offerings, it said to him, 
* If you are able with your offerings to exceed these, you can destroy 
the tope, and take it all away. I will not contend with you.' The 
king, however, knew that such appliances for offerings were not to be 
had anywhere in the world, and thereupon returned (without carrying 
out his purpose). 

(Afterwards), the ground all about became overgrown with vegetation, 
and there was nobody to sprinkle and sweep (about the tope) ; but a 
herd of elephants came regularly, which brought water with their trunks 
to water the ground, and various kinds of flowers and incense, which 
they presented at the tope. (Once) there came from one of the king- 
doms a devotee ^ to worship at the tope. When he encountered the 
elephants he was greatly alarmed, and screened himself among the trees $ 
but when he saw them go through with the offerings in the most proper 
manner, the thought filled him with great sadness — that there should be 
no monastery here, (the inmates of which) might serve the tope, but the 
elephants have to do the watering and sweeping. Forthwith he gave up 
the great prohibitions (by which he was bound)*, and resumed the status 
of a l^r&manera *, With his own hands he cleared away the grass and 
trees, put the place in good order, and made it pure and clean. By 
the power of his exhortations, he prevailed on the king of the country to 

^ The bones of the human body are supposed to consist of 84,000 atoms, and 
hence the legend of Aioka's wish to build 84,000 topes, one over each atom 
of Sakyamuni's skeleton. 

* Fd-hien, it appears to me, intended his readers to understand that the nSga- 
guardian had a palace of his own, inside or underneath the pool or tank. 

' It stands out on the narrative as a whole that we have not here ' some 
pilgrims,' but one devotee. 

* What the * great prohibitions ' which the devotee now gave up were we cannot 
tell. Being what he was, a monk of more than ordinary ascetical habits, he may 
have undertaken peculiar and difficult vows. 

* The Srdmanera, or in Chinese Shdmei. See note 7, page 45* 



70 THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

form a residence for monks ; and when that was done, he became head 
of the monastery. At the present day there are monks residing in it. 
This event is of recent occurrence ; but in all the succession from 
that time till now, there has always been a ordmaiiera head of the 
establishment. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

WHERE BUDDHA FINALLY RENOUNCED THE WORLD, AND WHERE 

HE DIED. 

• 

East from here four yojanas, there is the place where the heir-apparent 
sent back Chandaka, with his white horse ^ ; and there also a tope waB 
erected. 

Four yojanas to the east from this, (the travellers) came to the Charcoal 
tope *, where there is also a monastery. 

Going on twelve yojanas, still to the east, they came to the city of Ku^- 
yl ^ nagara ^, on the north of which, between two trees *, on the bank of 

'^'^' ^ ''■ the Nairanjani* river, is the place where the World-honoured one, with 

his head to the north, attained to pari-nirv4na (and died). There 

^ This was on the night when ^dkyamuni finally lefl his palace and 
family to fulfil the course to which he felt that he was called. Chandaka, 
in Pdli Channa, was the prince's charioteer, and in sympathy with him. So 
also was the white horse Kanthaka (Kanthakanam A^vardja), which neighed his 
delight till the devas heard him. See M. B., pp. 1 58-161, and Davids' Manual^ 
pp. 32, 33. According to * Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 87, the noble horse never 
returned to the city, but died of grief at being left by his master, to be reborn 
immediately in the Trayastrim^as heaven as the deva Kanthaka I 

' Beal and Giles call this the * Ashes ' tope. I also would have preferred to 
call it so ; but the Chinese character is ^, not Jg^. R^musat has ' la tour des 
charbons.* It was over the place of Buddha's cremation. 

' In Pali KusinirS. It got its name from the Ku^a grass (the poa cynosu- 
re ides); and its ruins are still extant, near Kusiah, 180 N.W. from Patna; 
•about,' says Davids, ' 120 miles N. N. E. of Benires, and 80 miles due east of 
Kapilavastu.' 

* The Sdla tree, the Shorea robusta, which yields the famous teak wood. 

* Confounded, according to Eitel, even by HsUan-chwang, with the Hiranya- 
vatt, which flows past the city on the south. 







VII. Buddha's dying instructions. 




vin. Buddha's death. 




IX. DIVISION OF nUDl>llA'S RELICS. 



DEATH OF BUDDHA. 71 

also are the places where Subhadra S the last (of his converts), attained 
to Wisdom (and became an Arhat) ; where in his coffin of gold they made 
offerings to the World -honoured one for seven days^ where the Vajrap4ni 
laid aside his golden club^ and where the eight kings divided the relics 
(of the burnt body)*: — at all these places were built topes and monas« 
teries, all of which are now existing. 

In the city the inhabitants are few and far between, comprising only 
the families belonging to the (different) societies of monks. 

Going from this to the south-east for twelve yojanas, they came 
to the place where the Lichchhavis* wished to follow Buddha to (the 

* A Brahman of Bendres, said to have been 120 years old, who came to learn 
from Buddha the very night he died. Ananda would have repulsed him; but 
Buddha ordered him to be introduced ; and then putting aside the ingenious but 
unimportant question which he propounded, preached to him the Law. The 
Brahman was converted and attained at once to Arhatship. Eitel says that he 
attained to nirv^a a few moments before ddkyamuni ; but see the full account of 
him and his conversion in 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 1 03-1 10. 

* Thus treating the dead Buddha as if he had been a Chakravartti king. 
Hardy's M. B., p. 347, says : — *For the place of cremation, the princes (of Ku^inSra) 
offered their own coronation-hall, which was decorated with the utmost magnifi- 
cence, and the body was deposited in a golden sarcophagus.' See the account of 
a cremation which Fa-hien witnessed in Ceylon, chap, xxxix. 

* The name Vajrapdni is explained as *he who holds in his hand the 
diamond club (or pestle = sceptre),' which is one of the many names of Indra or 
bakra. He therefore, that great protector of Buddhism, would seem to be 
intended here ; but the difficulty with me is that neither ifi Hardy nor Rockhill, 
nor any other writer, have I met with any manifestation of himself made by Indra 
on this occasion. The princes of Ku^nagara were called ma 11 as, 'strong or 
mighty heroes ; ' so also were those of Pdvd and Vai^lt ; and a question arises 
whether the language may not refer to some story which Fd-hien had heard, — 
something which they did on this great occasion. Vajrapdni is also explained as 
meaning ' the diamond mighty hero ; ' but the epithet of * diamond ' is not so appli- 
cable to them as to Indra. The clause may hereafter obtain more elucidation. 

* Of Kuianagara, Pdvd, Vai^dlt, and other kingdoms. Kings, princes, brah- 
mans, — each wanted the whole relic ; but they agreed to an eightfold division 
at the suggestion of the brahman Drona. 

* These ' strong heroes ' were the chiefs of Vai^dlt, a kingdom and city, with 



\ 



72 THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

place of) his pari-nirv4na, and where, when he would not listen to them 
and they kept cleaving to him, unwilling to go away, he made to 
appear a large and deep ditch which they could not cross over, and gave 
them his alms-bowl, as a pledge of his regard, (thus) sending them back 
to their families. There a stone pillar was erected with an account 
of this event engraved upon it. 

CHAPTER XXV. 

vai6Al1. the tope called 'weapons laid down.' the council 

OF vai^al!. 

East from this city ten yojanas, (the travellers) came to the kingdom 
of Vaiidli. North of the city so named is a large forest, having in it 
the double-galleried vihdra^ where Buddha dwelt, and the tope over 
half the body of Ananda ^. Inside the city the woman Ambap41!^ built a 
vih&ra in honour of Buddha, which is now standing as it was at first* 
Three le south of the city, on the west of the road, (is the) garden 
(which) the same Ambapdli presented to Buddha, in which he might 

an oligarchical constitution. They embraced Buddhism early, and were noted 
for their peculiar attachment to Buddha. The second synod was held at Validity 
as related in the next chapter. The ruins of the city still exist at Bassahar, north of 
Patna, the same, I suppose, as Besarh, twenty miles north of HajipAr. See BeaTs 
Revised Version, p. Hi. 

* It is difficult to tell what was the peculiar form of this vihSra from which it got 
its name ; something about the construction of its door, or cupboards, or galleries. 

' See the explanation of this in the next chapter. 

' Ambapdli, Amrapdlt, or Amradarika, ' the guardian of the Amra (probably 
the mango) tree,' is famous in Buddhist annals. See the account of her in M. B., 
pp- 456-8. She was a courtesan. She had been in manyndrakas or hells, was 
100,000 times a female beggar, and 10,000 times a prostitute; but maintaining 
perfect continence during the period of Kdsyapa Buddha, Sdkyamuni's predecessor, 
she had been born a devt, and finally appeared in earth under an Amra tree in 
Vaisalt. There again she fell into her old ways, and had a son by king Bimbi« 
sdra ; but she was won over by Buddha to virtue and chastity, renounced the world, 
and attained to the state of an Arhat. See the earliest account of Ambapili's pre- 
sentation of the garden in ' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 30-33, and the note there from 
Bishop Bigandet on pp. 33, 34. 



LEGEND OF THE BOWS AND WEAPONS' TOPE. 73 

reside. When Buddha was about to attain to his pari-nirv&na, as he 
was quitting the city by the west gate, he turned round, and, beholding 
the city on his right, said to them, ' Here I have taken my last walk ^.' 
Men subsequently built a tope at this spot. -^ j- ^ 

Three le north-west of the city there is a tope called, * Bows and nK^ ^- j<^^ 
weapons laid down.* The reason why it got that name was this : — The , w% , ^ j -^ , '^^V^ 
inferior wife of a king, whose country lay along the river Ganges^ brought j I 
forth from her womb a ball of flesh. The superior wife, jealous of the 
other, said, * You have brought forth a thing of evil omen,' and imme- 
diately it was put into a box of wood and thrown into the river. Farther 
down the stream another king was walking and looking about, when he 
saw the wooden box (floating) in the water. (He had it brought to him), 
opened it, and found a thousand little boys, upright and complete, and 
each one different from the others. He took them and had them brought 
up. They grew tall and large, and very daring and strong, crushing all 
opposition in every expedition which they undertook. By and by they 
attacked the kingdom of their real father, who became in consequence 
greatly distressed and sad. His inferior wife asked what it was that made 
him so, and he replied, 'That king has a thousand sons, daring and strong 
beyond compare, and he wishes with them to attack my kingdom ; this 
is what makes me sad.' The wife said, *You need not be sad and 
sorrowful. Only make a high gallery on the wall of the city on the 
east ; and when the thieves come, I shall be able to make them retire.* 
The king did as she said ; and when the enemies came, she said to them 
from the tower, ' You are my sons ; why are you acting so unnaturally 
and rebelliously ?* They replied, 'Who are you that say you are our 
mother? ' * If you do not believe me,' she said, * look, all of you, towards 
me, and open your mouths.' She then pressed her breasts with her two 
hands, and each sent forth 500 jets of milk, which fell into the mouths of 
the thousand sons. The thieves (thus) knew that she was their mother, 
and laid down their bows and weapons 2. The two kings, the fathers. 



* Beal gives, ' In this place I have performed the last religious act of my 
earthly career ; ' Giles, ' This is the last place I shall visit ; ' Rdmusat, * C'est un 
lieu oh je reviendrai bien longtemps aprfes ceci.' Perhaps the ' walk ' to which 
Buddha referred had been for meditation. 

* See the account of this legend in the note in M. B., pp. 235, 236, different, but 

1 



74 THE TRA VELS OF fA-HIEN. 

hereupon fell into reflection, and both got to be Pratyeka Buddhas^. 
The tope of the two Pratyeka Buddhas is still existing. 

In a subsequent age, when the World-honoured one had attained to 
perfect Wisdom (and become Buddha), he said to his disciples, * This 
is the place where I in a former age laid down my bow and weapons *.' 
It was thus that subsequently men got to know (the fact), and raised the 
tope on this spot, which in this way received its name. The thousand 
little boys were the thousand Buddhas of this Bhadra-kalpa^ 

It was by the side of the ' Weapons-laid-down ' tope that Buddha, 
having given up the idea of living longer, said to Ananda, ' In three 
months from this I will attain to pari-nirvdna;' and king Mdra* had 
so fascinated and stupefied Ananda, that he was not able to ask Buddha 
to remain longer in this world. 

Three or four le east from this place there is a tope (commemorating 

not less absurd. The first part of Fd-hien's narrative will have sent the thoughts 
of some of my readers to the exposure of the infant Moses, as related in Exodus. 

* See note 3, page 40. 

* Thus ^dkyamuni had been one of the thousand little boys who floated in 
the box in the Ganges. How long back the former age was we cannot telL 
I suppose the tope of the two fathers who became Pratyeka Buddhas had been 
built like the one commemorating the laying down of weapons after Buddha had 
told his disciples of the strange events in the past. 

' Bhadra-kalpa, *the Kalpa of worthies or sages.' 'This,' says Eitel, p. aa, 
' is a designation for a Kalpa of stability, so called because 1000 Buddhas appear 
in the course of it. Our present period is a Bhadra-kalpa, and four Buddhas 
have already appeared. It is to last 236 millions of years, but over 151 millions 
have already elapsed.' 

* * The king of demons.' The name Mdra is explained by * the murderer/ 
* the destroyer of virtue,' and similar appellations. ' He is,' says Eitel, ' the per- 
sonification of lust, the god of love, sin, and death, the arch-enemy of goodness, 
residing in the heaven ParanirmitaVa^avartinonthe top of the Kdmadh&tu. 
He assumes different forms, especially monstrous ones, to tempt or frighten the 
saints, or sends his daughters, or inspires wicked men like Devadatta or the Nir- 
granthas to do his work. He is often represented with 100 arms, and riding on 
an elephant.' The oldest form of the legend in this paragraph is in ' Buddhist 
Suttas,' Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, pp. 41-55, where Buddha says that, if 
Ananda had asked him thrice, he would have postponed his death. 



COUNCIL OF VAliALl 75 

the following occurrence) : — A hundred years after the pari-nirv4na of 
Buddha, some Bhikshus of Vai^li went wrong in the matter of the 
disciplinary rules in ten particulars, and appealed for their justification 
to what they said were the words of Buddha. Hereupon the Arhats and 
Bhikshus observant of the rules, to the number in all of 700 monks, 
examined afresh and collated the collection of disciplinary books ^. 
Subsequently men built at this place the tope (in question), which is still 
existing. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

REMARKABLE DEATH OF ANANDA. 

Four yojanas on from this place to the east brought the travellers 
to the confluence of the five rivers^. When Ananda was going from Ma- 
gadha^ to Vai^lt, wishing his pari -nirvana to take place (there), the 

* Or the Vinaya-pitaka. The meeting referred to was an important one, 
and is generally spoken of as the second Great Council of the Buddhist Church. 
See, on the formation of the Buddhist Canon, Hardy's E. M., chap, xviii, and the 
last chapter of Davids' Manual, on the History of the Order. The first Council 
was that held at Rdjagriha, shortly after Buddha's death, under the presidency of 
Ki^yapa; — say about b.c. 410. The second was that spoken of here; — say about 
B.C. 300. In Davids' Manual (p. 216) we find the ten points of discipline, in which 
the heretics (I can use that term here) claimed at least indulgence. Two meetings 
were held to consider and discuss them. At the former the orthodox party barely 
succeeded in carrying their condemnation of the laxer monks ; and a second and 
larger meeting, of which Fd-hien speaks, was held in consequence, and a more 
emphatic condemnation passed. At the same time all the books and subjects of 
discipline seem to have undergone a careful revision. 

The Corean text is clearer than the Chinese as to those who composed the 
Council, — the Arhats and orthodox monks. The leader amonff them was a Yaias, 
or Ya^ada, or Yedsaputtra, who had been a disciple of Ananda, and must 
therefore have been a very old man. 

* This spot does not appear to have been identified. It could not be far from 
Patna. 

' Magadha was for some time the headquarters of Buddhism ; the holy land, 
covered with vih^ras; a fact perpetuated, as has been observed in a previous 

\2 



76 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HI EN. 

devas informed king Ajdta&itru^ of it, and the king immediately pursued 
him, in his own grand carriage, with a body of soldiers, and had reached 
the river. (On the other hand), the Lichchhavis of Vai^lt had heard that 
Ananda was coming (to their city), and they on their part came to meet 
him. (In this way), they all arrived together at the river, and Ananda 
considered that, if he went forward, king Ajdta^atru would be very 
angry, while, if he went back, the Lichchhavis would resent his conduct. 
He thereupon in the very middle of the river burnt his body in a fiery 
ecstasy of Sam&dhi^ andhispari-nirv&na was attained. He divided 

note, in th6 name of the present Behir, the southern portion of which corresponds 
to the ancient kingdom of Magadha. 

^ In Singhalese, Ajasat See the account of his conversion in M. B., pp. 
321-326. He was the son of king Bimbisdra, who was one of the first ro3ral 
converts to Buddhism. Ajasat murdered his father, or at least wrought his 
death; and was at first opposed to ^dkyamuni, and a favourer of Devadatta. 
When converted, he became famous for his liberality in almsgiving. 

' Eitel has a long article (pp. 114, 115) on the meaning of Sam&dhi, which is 
one of the seven sections of wisdom (bodhyanga). Hardy defines it as meaning 
'perfect tranquillity; 'Tumour, as 'meditative abstraction;' Bumouf, as 'self-control;' 
and Edkins, as ' ecstatic reverie.' 'Samddhi,' says Eitel, ' signifies the highest 
pitch of abstract, ecstatic meditation; a state of absolute indifference to all influences 
from within or without; a state of torpor of both the material and spiritual forces of 
vitality; a sort of terrestrial nirvdna, consistently culminating in total destruction 
of life.' He then quotes apparently the language of the text, ' He consumed his 
body by Agni (the fire of) Samddhi,' and says it is 'a common expression for 
the eff'ects of such ecstatic, ultra -mystic self-annihilation.' All this is simply ' a 
darkening of counsel by words without knowledge.' Some facts concerning the 
death of Ananda are hidden beneath the darkness of the phraseology, which it is 
impossible for us to ascertain. By or in Sam&dhi he bums his body in the very 
middle of the river, and then he divides the relic of the burnt body into two parts 
(for so evidently Fd-hien intended his narration to be taken), and leaves one half 
on each bank. The account of Ananda's death in Nien-ch'ang's 'History of 
Buddha and the Patriarchs ' is much more extravagant. Crowds of men and devas 
are brought together to witness it. The body is divided into four parts. One is 
conveyed to the Tushita heaven; a second, to the palace of a certain N4ga 
king ; a third is given to Ajdta^tru ; and the fourth to the Lichchhavis. What it 
all really means I cannot tell. 



PATNA AND KING A&OKA. 77 

his body (also) into two, (leaving) the half of it on each bank ; so that 
each of the two kings got one half as a (sacred) relic, and took it back 
(to his own capital), and there raised a tope over it. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

pAtALIPUTTRA or PATNA, IN MAGADHA. KING A^OKA'S SPIRIT- 
BUILT PALACE AND HALLS. THE BUDDHIST BRAHMAN, rAdHA- 
sAmI. DISPENSARIES AND HOSPITALS. 

Having crossed the river, and descended south for a yojana, (the 
travellers) came to the town of Pdtaliputtra\ in the kingdom of 
Magadha, the city where king A^oka* ruled. The royal palace and 
halls in the midst of the city, which exist now as of old, were all made 
by spirits which he employed, and which piled up the stones, reared the 
walls and gates, and executed the elegant carving and inlaid sculpture- 
work, — in a way which no human hands of this world could accomplish. 

King A^oka had a younger brother who had attained to be an 
Arhat, and resided on Gcidhra-kOta ^ hill, finding his delight in solitude 
and quiet. The king, who sincerely reverenced him, wished and begged 
him (to come and live) in his family, where he could supply all his 
wants. The other, however, through his delight in the stillness of the 
mountain, was unwilling to accept the invitation, on which the king 
said to him, * Only accept my invitation, and I will make a hill for you 
inside the city,' Accordingly, he provided the materials of a feast, 

* The modern Patna, lat 25® 28' N., Ion. 85'' 15' E. The Sanskrit name 
means * The city of flowers.' • It is the Indian Florence. 

* See note 5, page 31. Asoka transferred his court from Rdjagriha to 
Pdtaliputtra, and there, in the eighteenth year of his reign, he convoked the third 
Great Synod, — according, at least, to southern Buddhism. It must have been held 
a few years before b.c. 250; Eitel says in 246. 

' * The Vulture-hill ; ' so called because Mdra, according to Buddhist tradition, 
once assumed the form of a vulture on it to interrupt the meditation of Ananda ; 
or, more probably, because it was a resort of vultures. It was near Rdjagriha, the 
earlier capital of A^oka, so that Fd-hien connects a legend of it with his account of 
Patna. It abounded in caverns, and was famous as a resort of ascetics. 



78 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

called to him the spirits, and announced to them, ' To-morrow you will 
all receive my invitation ; but as there are no mats for you to sit on, let 
each one bring (his own seat)/ Next day the spirits came, each one 
bringing with him a great rock, (like) a wall, four or five paces square, 
(for a seat). When their sitting was over, the king made them form 
a hill with the large stones piled on one another, and also at the foot of 
the hill, with five large square stones, to make an apartment, which 
might be more than thirty cubits long, twenty cubits wide, and more 
than ten cubits high. 

In this city there had resided a great Brahman ^ named R&dha-s&mi^, 
a professor of the mah&y&na, of clear discernment and much wisdom, 
who understood everything, living by himself in spotless purity. The 
king of the country honoured and reverenced him, and served him as his 
teacher. If he went to inquire for and greet him, the king did not 
presume to sit down alongside of him ; and if, in his love and rever- 
ence, he took hold of his hand, as soon as he let it go, the Brahman 
made haste to pour water on it and wash it. He might be more than 
fifty years old, and all the kingdom looked up to him. By means of 
this one man, the Law of Buddha was widely made known, and the 
followers of other doctrines did not find it in their power to persecute 
the body of monks in any way. 

By the side of the tope of A^oka, there has been made a mahd- 
ydna monastery, very grand and beautiful ; there is also a htnay&na one ; 
the two together containing six hundred or seven hundred monks. The 
rules of demeanour and the scholastic arrangements^ in them are worthy 
of observation. 

Shamans of the highest virtue from all quarters, and students, inquirers 

^ A Brahman by caste, but a Buddhist in faith. 

^ So, by the help of Julian's * Mdthode/ I transliterate the Chinese characters 
M !^ ^ ^. Beal gives Rddhasvami, his Chinese text having a ^ between 
^ and ^^. I suppose the name was Ridhasvimi or Ridhasdmi. 

' P^ j?, the names of two kinds of schools, often occurring in the Lt E\ 
and Mencius. Why should there not have been schools in those monasteries in 
India as there were in China ? Fd-hien himself grew up with other boys in a 
monastery, and no doubt had to * go to school/ And the next sentence shows us there 
might be schools for more advanced students as well as for the Sr&maneras. 



FESTIVALS AND CHARITIES OF MAGADHA. 79 

wishing to find out truth and the grounds of it, all resort to these 
monasteries. There also resides in this monastery a Brahman teacher, 
whose name also is Mailju^ri^, whom the Shamans of greatest virtue in 
the kingdom, and the mah&y&na Bhikshus honour and look up to. 

The cities and towns of this country are the greatest of all in the 
Middle Kingdom. The inhabitants are rich and prosperous, and vie 
with one another in the practice of benevolence and righteousness. 
Every year on the eighth day of the second month they celebrate a 
procession of images. They make a four-wheeled car, and on it erect 
a structure of five storeys by means of bamboos tied together. This is 
supported by a king-post, with poles and lances slanting from it, and is 
rather more than twenty cubits high, having the shape of a tope. White 
and silk-like cloth of hair ^ is wrapped all round it, which is then painted 
in various colours. They make figures of devas, with gold, silver, and 
lapis lazuli grandly blended and having silken streamers and canopies 
hung out over them. On the four sides are niches, with a Buddha seated 
in each, and a Bodhisattva standing in attendance on him. There may 
be twenty cars, all grand and imposing, but each one different from the 
others. On the day mentioned, the monks and laity within the borders 
all come together; they have singers and skilful musicians; they pay 
their devotions with flowers and incense. The Brahmans come and 
invite the Buddhas to enter the city. These do so in order, and remain 
two nights in it. All through the night they keep lamps burning, have 
skilful music, and present offerings. This is the practice in all the other 
kingdoms as well. The Heads of the Vaiiya families in them establish 
in the cities houses for dispensing charity and medicines. All the poor 
and destitute in the country, orphans, widowers, and childless men, 
maimed people and cripples^ and all who are diseased, go to those 
houses, and are provided with every kind of help, and doctors examine 
their diseases. They get the food and medicines which their cases 
require, and are made to feel at ease ; and when they are better, they go 
away of themselves. 

When king A^oka destroyed the seven topes, (intending) to make 

* See note i, page 4. It is perhaps with reference to the famous Bodhisattva 
that the Brahman here is said to be ' also ' named Mafijusrt. 

* ? Cashmere cloth. 



8o THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN, 

eighty-four thousand ^, the first which he made was the great tope, more 
than three le to the south of this city. In front of this there is a foot- 
print of Buddha, where a vihira has been built. The door of it faces the 
north, and on the south of it there is a stone pillar, fourteen or fifteen 
cubits in circumference, and more than thirty cubits high, on which there 
is an inscription, saying, * A^oka gave the jambudvfpa to the general 
body of all the monks, and then redeemed it from them with money. 
This he did three times*.' North from the tope 300 or 400 paces, king 
A^oka built the city of Ne-le ^ In it there is a stone pillar, which also is 
more than thirty feet high, with a lion on the top of it. On the pillar 
there is an inscription recording the things which led to the building of 
Ne-le, with the number of the year, the day, and the month. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

RAJAGRIHA, NEW AND OLD. LEGENDS AND INCIDENTS CONNECTED 

WITH IT. 

(The travellers) went on from this to the south-east for nine yojanas, 
and came to a small solitary rocky hill *, at the head or end of which * 
was an apartment of stone, facing the south, — the place where Buddha 
sat, when Sakra, Ruler of Devas, brought the deva-musician, Pancha- 

* See note i, page 69. 

* We wish that we had more particulars of this great transaction, and that 
we knew what value in money A^oka set on the whole world. It is to be 
observed that he gave it to the monks, and did not receive it from them. Their 
right was from him, and he bought it back. He was the only * Power ' that was. 

' We know nothing more of Ne-le. It could only have been a small place ; an 
outpost for the defence of Pataliputtra. 

* Called by Hstlan-chwang Indra-^ila-guhS, or *The cavern of Indra.' It 
has been identified with a hill near the village of Giryek, on the bank of the 
Pafichina river, about thirty-six miles from Gaya. The hill terminates in two 
peaks overhanging the river, and it is the more northern and higher of these 
which Fd-hien had in mind. It bears an oblong terrace covered with the ruins 
of several buildings, especially of a vihira. 

' This does not mean the top or summit of the hill, but its ' headland,' where 
it ended at the river. 



LEGENDS. NEW RAJ A GRIHA . 8 1 

(iikha) ^, to give pleasure to him by playing on his lute, oakra then 
asked Buddha about forty-two subjects, tracing (the questions) out with 
his finger one by one on the rock ^. The prints of his tracing are still 
there ; and here also there is a monastery. 

A yojana south-west from this place brought them to the village of 
Nila^, where S^riputtra* was born, and to which also he returned, and 
attained here his pari-nirvina. Over the spot (where his body was 
burned) there was built a tope, which is still in existence. 

Another yojana to the west brought them to New Rijagriha*, — the 
new city which was built by king Aj^taiatru. There were two monas- 
teries in it. Three hundred paces outside the west gate, king Ajdta^ 
^tru, having obtained one portion of the relics of Buddha, built (over 
them) a tope, high, large, grand, and beautiful. Leaving the city by 
the south gate, and proceeding south four le, one enters a valley, and 
comes to a circular space formed by five hills, which stand all round 



^ See the account of this visit of Sakra in M. B., pp. 288-290. It is from 
Hardy that we are able to complete here the name of the musician, which appears 
in Fd-hien as only Paficha, or 'Five.' His harp or lute, we are told, was 
* twelve miles long.' 

' Hardy (M. B., pp. 288, 289) makes the subjects only thirteen, which are still 
to be found in one of the Siitras (' the Dik-Sanga, in the ^akra-pra^na Siitra '). 
Whether it was 6akra who wrote his questions, or Buddha who wrote the answers, 
depends on the punctuation. It seems better to make ^akra the writer. 

' Or Ndlanda; identified with the present Baragong. A grand monastery 
was subsequently built at it, famous by the residence for five years of Hstian- 
chwang. 

^ See note 3, page 44. There is some doubt as to the statement that N&la 
was his birthplace. 

• The city of ' Royal Palaces ; ' * the residence of the Magadha kings from 
Bimbisira to Aioka, the first metropolis of Buddhism, at the foot of the Gridhra- 
k&ta, mountains. Here the first synod assembled within a year after Sdkyamimi's 
death. lis ruins are still extant at the village of Rajghir, sixteen miles S.W. of 
Behdr, and form an object of pilgrimage to the Jains (£. H., p. 100).' It is called 
New Rdjagiriha to distinguish it from Ku^igdrapura, a few miles from it, the old 
residence of the kings. Eitel says it was buik by Bimbisira, while F4-hien 
ascribes it to Aj&ta^tru. I suppose the son finished what the father had begun* 

m 



82 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

it, and have the appearance of the suburban wall of a city. Here was 
the old city of king Bimbis4ra^ ; from east to west about five or six le, and 
from north to south seven or eight. It was here that oiriputtra and Maud- 
galyiyana first saw Upasena^; that the Nirgrantha* made a pit of fi're 
and poisoned the rice, and then invited Buddha (to eat with him) ; that 
king Ajitai^atru made a black elephant intoxicated with liquor^ wish- 
ing him to injure Buddha * ; and that at the north-east comer of the city 
in a (large) curving (space) Jivaka built a vihdra in the garden of Amba- 
pili*, and invited Buddha with his 1250 disciples to it, that he might 
there make his oflferings to support them. (These places) are still there 
as of old, but inside the city all is emptiness and desolation ; no man 
dwells in it. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

gridhra-kOta hill, and legends, fa-hien passes 
a night on it. his reflections. 

Entering the valley, and keeping along the mountains on the south- 
east, after ascending fifteen le, (the travellers) came to mount Gridhra- 

* See note 5, p. 81. 

' One of the five first followers of Sdkyamuni. He is also called A^vajit; in 
Pdli Assaji; but A^vajit seems to be a military title =* Master or trainer of horses/ 
The two more famous disciples met him, not to lead him, but to be directed 
by him, to Buddha. See Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, Vinaya Texts, 

pp. 144-147- 

' One of the six Tirthyas (Tirthakas=* erroneous teachers;' M. B., pp. 290- 
29a, but I have not found the particulars of the attempts on Buddha's life referred 
to by Fi-hien), or Brahmanical opponents of Buddha. He was an ascetic, one of 
the Jfidti clan, and is therefore called Nirgranthajfldti. He taught a system of 
fatalism, condemned the use of clothes, and thought he could subdue all passions 
by fasting. He had a body of followers, who called themselves by his name 
(Eitel, pp. 84, 85), and were the forerunners of the Jains. 

* The king was moved to this by Devadatta. Of course the elephant disap- 
pointed them, and did homage to ^kyamuni. See Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. XX, Vinaya Texts, p. 247. 

* See note 3, p. 72. Jtvaka was Ambap^li's son by king Bimbis^ra, and devoted 
himself to the practice of medicine. See the account of him in the Sacred Books 
of the East, vol. xvii, Vinaya Texts, pp. 171-194. 



fA'HIEn's night on gj^idhra-kuta hill. 83 

kflta*. Three le before you reach the top, there is a cavern in the 
rocks, facing the south, in which Buddha sat in meditation. Thirty 
paces to the north-west there is another, where Ananda was sitting in 
meditation, when the deva Mira Piiuna^, having assumed the form 
of a large vulture, took his place in front of the cavern, and 
frightened the disciple. Then Buddha, by his mysterious, supernatural 
power, made a cleft in the rock, introduced his hand, and stroked Ananda*s 
shoulder, so that his fear immediately passed away. The footprints of 
the bird and the cleft for (Buddha's) hand are still there, and hence 
comes the pame of ' The Hill of the Vulture Cavern.' 

In front of the cavern there are the places where the four Buddhas 
sat. There are caverns also of the Arhats, one where each sat and 
meditated, amounting to several hundred in all. At the place where in 
front of his rocky apartment Buddha was walking from east to west (in 
meditation), and Devadatta, from among the beetling cliffs on the north 
of the mountain, threw a rock across, and hurt Buddha's toes ^, the rock 
is still there *. 

The hall where Buddha preached his Law has been destroyed, and 
only the foundations of the brick walls remain. On this hill the peak is 
beautifully green, and rises grandly up ; it is the highest of all the five 
hills. In the New City Fd-hien bought incense-(sticks), flowers, oil 
and lamps, and hired two bhikshus, long resident (at the place), to carry 
them (to the peak). When he himself got to it, he made his offerings 
with the flowers and incense, and lighted the lamps when the darkness 
b^an to come on. He felt melancholy, but restrained his tears and 
said, *Here Buddha delivered the ^flrftngama (SOtra)*. I, F4-hien, 
was bom when I could not meet with Buddha ; and now I only see the 

* See note 4, p. 80. 

' See note 4, p. 74. Pi^una is a name given to Mira, and signifies ' sinful lust.' 

• See M. B., p. 320. Hardy says that Devadatta's attempt was * by the help of 
a machine ;' but the oldest account in the Sacred Books of the East, vol. xx, Vinaya 
Texts, p. 245, agrees with what Fd-hien implies that he threw the rock with his 
own arm. 

* And, as described by Hsiian-chwang, fourteen or fifteen cubits high, and 
thirty paces round. 

• See Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio's 'Catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the Buddhist 

m % 



84 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. 

footprints which he has left, and the place where he lived, and nothing 
more/ With this, in front of the rock cavern, he chanted the oAr&ngama 
S{itra, remained there over the night, and then returned towards the 
New City*. 

CHAPTER XXX. 

THE ^RATAPARNA CAVE, OR CAVE OF THE FIRST COUNCIL. 

LEGENDS. SUICIDE OF A BHIKSHU. 

Out from the old city, after walking over 300 paces, on the west of 
the road, (the travellers) found the Karanda Bamboo garden^, where the 
(old) vihira is still in existence, with a company of monks, who keep 
(the ground about it) swept and watered. 

North of the vih4ra two or three le there was the Sma^4nam, which 
name means in Chinese ' the field of graves into which the dead are 
thrown ^.' 

Tripitaka,' Siitra Pitaka, Nos. 399, 446. It was the former of these that came on 
this occasion to the thoughts and memory of Fd-hien. 

* In a note (p. Ix) to his revised version of our author, Mr. Beal says, 'There 
is a full account of this perilous visit of F^-hien, and how he was attacked by 
tigers, in the " History of the High Priests."' But * the high priests ' merely means 
distinguished monks, 'eminent monks,' as Mr. Nanjio exactly renders the ad- 
jectival character. Nor was Fd-hien ' attacked by tigers' on the peak. No * tigers' 
appear in the Memoir. * Two b 1 a c k 1 i o n s' indeed crouched before him for a time 
this night, ' licking their lips and waving their tails ; ' but their appearance was to 
'try,' and not to attack him; and when they saw him resolute, they 'drooped their 
heads, put down their tails, and prostrated themselves before him.' This of course 
is not an historical account, but a legendary tribute to his bold perseverance. 

' Karanda Yen u van a; a park presented to Buddha by king Bimbisftra, 
who also built a vih&ra in it. See the account of the transaction in M. B., 
p. 194. The place was called Karanda, from a creature so named, which awoke 
the king just as a snake was about to bite him, and thus saved his life. In Hardy 
the creature appears as a squirrel, but Eitel says that the Karanda is a bird of 1^ 
sweet voice, resembling a magpie, but herding in flocks; the cuculusmelano- 
leucus. See ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 1 18. 

' The language here is rather contemptuous, as if our author had no sympathy 



THE FIRST COUNCIL. SUICIDE OF A BHIKSHU. 85 

As they kept along the mountain on the south, and went west for 300 
paces, they found a dwelling among the rocks, named the Pippala 
cave*, in which Buddha regularly sat in meditation after taking his 
(midday) meal. 

Going on still to the west for five or six le, on the north of the hill, in 
the shade, they found the cavern called Srataparna ^ the place where, 
after the nirvana ^ of Buddha, 500 Arhats collected the Sfltras. When 
they brought the SOtras forth, three lofty seats* had been prepared and 
grandly ornamented. SAriputtra occupied the one on the left, and 
Maudgaly^yana that on the right. Of the number of five hundred one 
was wanting. Mah&ka^yapa was president (on the middle seat). 
Ananda was then outside the door, and could not get in*. At the place 
there was (subsequently) raised a tope, which is still existing. 

Along (the sides of) the hill, there are also a very great many cells 
among the rocks, where the various Arhans sat and meditated. As you 

~- - ■ - — - ■ ■ I I ■ I ■ 

with any other mode of disposing of the dead, but by his own Buddhistic method 
of cremation. 

* The Chinese characters used for the name of this cavern serve also to 
name the pippala (peepul) tree, the fie us religiosa. They make us think that 
there was such a tree overshadowing the cave ; but F^-hien would hardly have 
neglected to mention such a circumstance. 

' A very great place in the annals of Buddhism. The Coimcil in the Srata- 
parna cave did not come together fortuitously, but appears to have been 
convoked by the older members to settle the rules and doctrines of the order. 
The cave was prepared for the occasion by king Aj^tasatni. From the expression 
about the 'bringing forth of the King/ it would seem that the Siitras or some 
of them had been already committed to writing. May not the meaning of King 
(jj^ here be extended to the V in ay a rules, as well as the Siitras, and mean Uhe 
standards' of the system generally? See Davids' Manual, chapter ix, and Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. xx, Vinaya Texts, pp. 370-385. 

' So in the text, evidently for pari-nirvdna. 

* Instead of * high ' seats, the Chinese texts have ' vacant.' The character for 
'prepared* denotes 'spread;' — they were carpeted; perhaps, both cushioned and 
carpeted, being rugs spread on the ground, raised higher than the other places for seats. 

* Did they not contrive to let him in, with some cachinnation, even in so 
august an assembly, that so important a member should have been shut out ? 



86 THE TEA VELS OF fA-HIEN. 

leave the old city on the north, and go down east for three le, there is 
the rock dwelling of Devadatta, and at a distance of fifty paces from 
it there is a large, square, black rock. Formerly there was a bhikshu, 
who, as he walked backwards and forwards upon it, thought with himself: — 
* This body ^ is impermanent, a thing of bitterness and vanity ^ and which 
cannot be looked on as pure'. I am weary of this body, and troubled by 
it as an evil.' With this he grasped a knife, and was about to kill him- 
self. But he thought again : — * The World-honoured one laid down a 
prohibition against one's killing himself*.' Further it occurred to him : — 
*Yes, he did; but I now only wish to kill three poisonous thieves*.' 
Immediately with the knife he cut his throat. With the first gash into 
the flesh he attained the state of a Srotipanna * ; when he had gone 
half through, he attained to be an An&g&min^ ; and when he had cut right 
through, he was an Arhat, and attained to pari-nirv&na® ; (and died). 



^ <The life of this body' would, I think, fairly express the idea of the 
bhikshu. 

* See the account of Buddha's preaching in chapter xviii. 
' The sentiment of this clause is not easily caught. 

^ See £. M., p. 152 : — 'Buddha made a law forbidding the monks to commit 
suicide. He prohibited any one from discoursing on the miseries of life in 
such a manner as to cause desperation.' See also M, B., pp. 464, 465. 

* Beal says : — * Evil desire ; hatred ; ignorance.' 

* See note 2, p. 57. 

■^ The AnSgdmin belong to the third degree of Buddhistic saintship, the 
third class of Aryas (note 2, page 57), who are no more liable to be reborn as 
men, but are to be bom once more as defas, when they will forthwith become 
Arhats, and attain to nirv&na. £. H., pp. 8, 9. 

® Our author expresses no opinion of his own on the act of this bhikshu. 
Must it not have been a good act, when it was attended, in the very act of per- 
formance, by such blessed consequences ? But if Buddhism had not something 
better to show than what appears here, it would not attract the interest which it 
now does. The bhikshu was evidently rather out of his mind ; and the verdict 
of a coroner's inquest of this nineteenth century would have pronounced that he 
killed himself ' in a fit of insanity.' 




IV. BUDDHA IN SOLITUDE AND ENDURING AUS'n':RITIES. 



THE ATTAINMENT OF THE BUDDHASHIP. 87 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

GAY A. iSAkYAMUNI'S ATTAINING TO THE BUDDHASHIP; AND 

OTHER LEGENDS. 

From this place, after travelling to the west for four yojanas, (the 
pilgrims) came to the city of Gay4 ^ ; but inside the city all was empti- 
ness and desolation. Going on again to the south for twenty le, they 
arrived at the place where the Bodhisattva for six years practised with 
himself painful austerities. All around was forest. 

Three le west from here they came to the place where, when Buddha 
had gone into the water to bathe, a deva bent down the branch of a tree, 
by means of which he succeeded in getting out of the pool*. 

Two le north from this was the place where the Gr4mika girls pre- 
sented to Buddha the rice-gruel made with milk*; and two le north 
from this (again) was the place where, seated on a rock under a great 
tree, and facing the east, he ate (the gruel). The tree and the rock are 
there at the present day. The rock may be six cubits in breadth and 
length, and rather more than two cubits in height. In Central India the 
cold and heat are so equally tempered that trees will live in it for several 
thousand and even for ten thousand years. 

Haifa yojana from this place to the north-east there was a cavern in 

* Gayd, a city of Magadha, was north-west of the present Gayah (lat. 24** 47' N., 
Ion. 85** i' E.). It was here that Sdkyamimi lived for seven years, after quitting his 
family, until he attained to Buddhaship. The place is still frequented by pilgrims. 
E. H., p. 41* 

' This is told so as to make us think that he was in danger of being drowned; 
but this does not appear in the only other account ( f the incident I have met 
with, — in ' The Life of the Buddha,' p. 31. And he was not yet Buddha, though 
he is here called so ; unless indeed the narrative is confused, and the incidents do 
not follow in the order of time. 

' An incident similar to this is told, with many additions, in Hardy's M. B., 
pp. 166-168 ; * The Life of the Buddha,' p. 30 ; and the * Buddhist Birih Stories/ 
pp. 91, 92; but the name of the ministering girl or girls is different. I take 
Grimika from a note in Beal's revised version ; it seems to me a happy solution 
of the difficulty caused by the ^ ^ of Fd-hien. 



/• 



88 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HJEN. 

the rocks, into which the Bodhisattva entered, and sat cross-l^ged with 
his face to the west. (As he did so), he said to himself, 'If I am to attain 
to perfect wisdom (and become Buddha), let there be a supernatural 
attestation of it.' On the wall of the rock there appeared immediately 
the shadow of a Buddha, rather more than three feet in length, which is 
still bright at the present day. At this moment heaven and earth were 
greatly moved, and devas in the air spoke plainly, ' This is not the place 
where any Buddha of the past, or he that is to come, has attained, or will 
attain, to perfect Wisdom. Less than half a yojana from this to the 
south-west will bring you to the patra^ tree, where all past Buddhas 
have attained, and all to come must attain, to perfect Wisdom.' When 
they had spoken these words, they immediately led the way forwards to 
the place, singing as they did so. As they thus went away, the Bodhisattva 
arose and walked (after them). At a distance of thirty paces from the 
tree, a deva gave him the grass of lucky omen *, which he received and went 
on. After (he had proceeded) fifteen paces, 500 green birds came flying 
towards him, went round him thrice, and disappeared. The Bodhisattva 
went forward to the patra tree, placed the kuia grass at the foot of it, 
and sat down with his face to the east. Then king Mira sent three 
beautiful young ladies, who came from the north, to tempt him, while he 
himself came from the south to do the same. The Bodhisattva put 
his toes down on the ground, and the demon soldiers retired and 
dispersed, and the three young ladies were changed into old (grand-) 
mothers ^. 

At the place mentioned above of the six years* painful austerities, and 
at all these other places, men subsequently reared topes and set up 
images, which all exist at the present day. 

Where Buddha, after attaining to perfect wisdom, for seven days 
contemplated the tree, and experienced the joy of vimukti *; where, under 

* Called *the tree of leaves,' and 'the tree of reflection;' a palm tree, the 
borassus flabellifera, described as a tree which never loses its leaves. It is 
often confounded with the pippala. E. H., p. 92. 

' The ku^a grass, mentioned in a previous note. 

' See the account of this contest with MSra in M. B., pp. 171-179, and 
'Buddhist Birth Stories,* pp. 96-101. 

* See note 2, p. 38. 




V. BUDDHASHIP ATTAINED. 



AFTER THE A TTAINMENT OF THE BUDDHASHIP. 89 

the patra tree, he walked backwards and forwards from west to east for 
seven days; where the devas made a hall appear, composed of the 
seven precious substances, and presented offerings to him for seven days ; 
where the blind dragon Muchilinda^ encircled him for seven days ; where 
he sat under the nyagrodha tree, on a square rock, with his face to the 
east, and Brahma-deva ^ came and made his request to him ; where the 
four deva kings brought to him their alms-bowls ^ ; where the 500 mer- 
chants* presented to him the roasted flour and honey; and where he 
converted the brothers Ka^yapa and their thousand disciples^; — at all 
these places topes were reared. 

At the place where Buddha attained to perfect Wisdom, there are 
three monasteries, in all of which there are monks residing. The 
families of their people around supply the societies of these monks with an 
abundant sufficiencyof what they require, so that there is no lack or stint®. 
The disciplinary rules are strictly observed by them. The laws regulating 
their demeanour in sitting, rising, and entering when the others are 
assembled, are those which have been practised by all the saints since 

^ Called also Mahd, or the Great Muchilinda. Eitel says : ' A niga king, the 
tutelary deity of a lake near which Sdkyamuni once sat for seven days absorbed 
in meditation, whilst the king guarded him.' The account (p. 35) in * The Life of 
the Buddha ' is : — ' Buddha went to where lived the n^ga king Muchilinda, and he, 
wishing to preserve him from the sun and rain, wrapped his body seven times 
round him, and spread out his hood over his head ; and there he remained seven 
days in thought.* So also the Niddna KathA, in * Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 109. 

■ This was Brahmd himself, though *king' is omitted. What he requested of the 
Buddha was that he would begin the preaching of his Law. Niddna Kathd, p. 1 1 1. 

• See note 4, p. 35. 

• The other accounts mention only two ; but in M. B,, p. 182, and the Niddna 
Kathd, p. no, these two have 500 well-laden waggons with them* 

• These must not be confounded with Mahika^yapa of note 5, p. 45. They 
were three brothers, Uruvilvd, Gayd, and NadJ-Kasyapa, up to this time holders 
of 'erroneous' views, having 500, 300, and 200 disciples respectively. They 
became distinguished followers of ^akyamuni ; and are — each of them — to become 
Buddha by-and-by. See the Nidana Kathd, pp. 114, 115. 

• This seems to be the meaning ; but I do not wonder that some understand 
the sentence of the benevolence of the monkish population to the travellers. 

n 



90 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

Buddha was in the world down to the present day. The places of the 
four great topes have been fixed, and handed down without break, since 
Buddha attained to n i r v& n a. Those four great topes are those at the places 
where Buddha was bom ; where he attained to Wisdom ; where he (b^;an 
to) move the wheel of his Law ; and where he attained to pari-nirv&na. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

LEGEND OF KING A§OKA IN A FORMER BIRTH, AND HIS 

NARAKA. 

When king Aioka, in a former birth*, was a little boy and playing on 
the road, he met KaiSyapa Buddha walking. (The stranger) begged 
food, and the boy pleasantly took a handful of earth and gave it to him. 
The Buddha took the earth, and returned it to the ground on which 
he was walking ; but because of this (the boy) received the recompense 
of becoming a king of the iron wheel ^ to rule over Jambudvtpa. 
(Once) when he was making a judicial tour of inspection through 
Jambudvtpa, he saw, between the iron circuit of the two hills, a naraka' 
for the punishment of wicked men. Having thereupon asked his ministers 
what sort of a thing it was, they replied, * It belongs to Yama *, king of 

^ Here is an instance of ^ used, as was pointed out in note 3, page 30, 
for a former age ; and not merely a former time. Perhaps ' a former birth ' is the 
best translation. The Corean reading of Ka^yapa Buddha is certainly preferable 
to the Chinese ' 6dkya Buddha.* 

' See note 3, p. 49. 

' I prefer to retain the Sanskrit term here, instead of translating the Chinese 
text by 'Earth's prison i^f^ ^)/ ^^ ' ^ prison in the earth ;' the name which has 
been adopted generally by Christian missionaries in China for gehenna and 
hell. 

* Eitel (p. 173) says: — *Yama was originally the Aryan god of the dead, 
living in a heaven above the world, the regent of the south; but Brahmanism 
transferred his abode to hell. Both views have been retained by Buddhism.' 
The Yama of the text is the 'regent of the narakas, residing south of Jambu- 
dvipa, outside the Chakravdlas (the double circuit of mountains above), in a palace 
built of brass and iron. He has a sister who controls all the female culprits, as 



ANOKA'S NARAKA. 91 

demons, for punishing wicked people/ The king thought within himself : — 
* (Even) the king of demons is able to make anaraka in which to deal 
with wicked men ; why should not I, who am the lord of men, make a 
naraka in which to deal with wicked men?' He forthwith asked his 
ministers who could make for him a naraka and preside over the punish- 
ment of wicked people in it. They replied that it was only a man of extreme 
wickedness who could make it ; and the king thereupon sent officers to 
seek everywhere for (such) a bad man ; and they saw by the side of a 
pond a man tall and strong, with a black countenance, yellow hair, and 
green eyes, hooking up the fish with his feet, while he called to him 
birds and beasts, and, when they came, then shot and killed them, 
so that not one escaped. Having got this man, they took him to the 
king, who secretly charged him, * You must make a square enclosure 
with high walls. Plant in it all kinds of flowers and fruits ; make good 
ponds in it for bathing ; make it grand and imposing in every way, so that 
men shall look to it with thirsting desire ; make its gates strong and 
sure ; and when any one enters, instantly seize him and punish him as 
a sinner, not allowing him to get out. Even if I should enter, punish 
me as a sinner in the same way, and do not let me go. I now appoint 
you master of that naraka.' 

Soon after this a bhikshu, pursuing his r^ular course of b^ging his 
food, entered the gate (of the place). When the lictors of the naraka 
saw him, they were about to subject him to their tortures ; but he, 
frightened, begged them to allow him a moment in which to eat his 
midday meal. Immediately after, there came in another man, whom they 
thrust into a mortar and pounded till a red froth overflowed. As the 
bhikshu looked on, there came to him the thought of the impermanence, 
the painful suffering and inanity of this body, and how it is but as a 
bubble and as foam ; and instantly he attained to Arhatship. Imme- 
diately after, the lictors seized him, and threw him into a caldron of 



he exclusively deals with the male sex. Three times, however, in every twenty- 
four hours, a demon pours boiling copper into Yama's mouth, and squeezes it 
down his throat, causing him unspeakable pain/ Such, however, is the wonderful 
' transrotation of births,' that when Yama's sins have been expiated, he is to be 
reborn as Buddha, under the name of ' The Universal King.' 

n 7. 



9a THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN, 

boiling water. There was a look of joyful satisfaction, however, in 
the bhikshu's countenance. The fire was extinguished, and the water 
became cold. In the middle (of the caldron) there rose up a lotus 
flower, with the bhikshu seated on it. The lictors at once went and 
reported to the king that there was a marvellous occurrence in the 
naraka, and wished him to go and see it; but the king said, ' I formerly 
made such an agreement that now I dare not go (to the place).' The 
lictors said, * This is not a small matter. Your majesty ought to go 
quickly. Let your former agreement be altered.' The king thereupon 
followed them, and entered (the naraka), when the bhikshu preached 
the Law to him, and he believed, and was made free^. Forthwith he 
demolished the naraka, and repented of all the evil which he had for- 
merly done. From this time he believed in and honoured the Three 
Precious Ones, and constantly went to a pat ra tree, repenting under it, 
with self-reproach, of his errors, and accepting the eight rules of abstinence*. 
The queen asked where the king was constantly going to, and the 
ministers replied that he was constantly to be seen under (such and such) 
a patra tree. She watched for a time when the king was not there, and 
then sent men to cut the tree down. When the king came, and saw 
what had been done, he swooned away with sorrow, and fell to the 
ground. His ministers sprinkled water on his face, and after a consider- 
able time he revived. He then built all round (the stump) with bricks, 
and poured a hundred pitchers of cows' milk on the roots ; and as he 
lay with his four limbs spread out on the ground, he took this oath, * If 
the tree do not live, I will never rise from this.' When he had uttered 
this oath, the tree immediately began to grow from the roots, and it has 
continued to grow till now, when it is nearly lOO cubits in height. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

MOUNT GURUPADA, WHERE KA^YAPA BUDDHA'S ENTIRE SKELETON IS. 

(The travellers), going on from this three le to the south, came 
to a mountain named Gurupada^, inside which Mah&ka^yapa even 

* Or, * was loosed ; * from the bonds, I suppose, of his various illusions. 

' I have not met with this particular numerical category. 

' * Fowl's-foot hill,' * with three peaks, resembling the foot of a chicken. It lies 



SKELETON OF KA^YAPA BUDDHA IN MOUNTAIN. 93 

now is. He made a cleft, and went down into it, though the place 
where he entered would not (now) admit a man. Having gone down 
very far, there was a hole on one side, and there the complete body 
of Ka^yapa (still) abides. Outside the hole (at which he entered) is the 
earth with which he had washed his hands ^. If the people living there- 
abouts have a sore on their heads, they plaster on it some of the earth 
from this, and feel immediately easier*. On this mountain, now as of 
old, there are Arhats abiding. Devotees of our Law from the various 
countries in that quarter go year by year to the mountain, and present 
offerings to Ka^yapa ; and to those whose hearts are strong in faith there 
come Arhats at night, and talk with them, discussing and explaining their 
doubts, and disappearing suddenly afterwards. 

On this hill hazels grow luxuriantly; and there are many lions, 
tigers, and wolves, so that people should not travel incautiously. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

ON THE WAY BACK TO PATNA. vArANASI, OR BENArES. ^AkYA- 
MUNl'S FIRST DOINGS AFTER BECOMING BUDDHA. 

FA-HIEN^ returned (from here) towards Pdtaliputtra*, keeping along 
the course of the Ganges and descending in the direction of the west. 

seven miles south-east of Gayd, and was the residence of Mahdka^yapa, who is 
said to be still living inside this mountain.* So Eitel says, p. 58 ; but this chapter 
does not say that Ka^yapa is in the mountain alive, but that his body entire is in 
a recess or hole in it. Hardy (M.B., p. 97) says that after Ka^yapa Buddha's 
body was bumt, the bones still remained in their usual position, presenting the 
appearance of a perfect skeleton. It is of him that the chapter speaks, and 
not of the famous disciple of ^dkyamuni, who also is called Mahdka^yapa. This 
will appear also on a comparison of Eitel's articles on * Mahdkaiyapa ' and ' Ka- 
^yapa Buddha.' 

* Was it a custom to wash the hands with * earth,' as is often done with sand ? 

* This I conceive to be the meaning here. 

' Fd-hien is here mentioned singly, as in the account of his visit to the cave 
on Gridhra-kiita. I think that Tdo-ching may have remained at Patna after their 
first visit to it. 

* See note i, p. 77. 



94 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HJEN. 

After going ten yojanas he found a vihclra, named *The Wilderness/ — 
a place where Buddha had dwelt, and where there are monks now. 

Pursuing the same course, and going still to the west, he arrived, 
after twelve yojanas, at the city of VArinast^ in the kingdom of K4il. 
Rather more than ten le to the north-east of the city, he found the 
V i h a r a in the park of * The r i s h i *s Deer-wild ^' In this park there formerly 
resided a Pratyeka Buddha ^ with whom the deer were regularly in 
the habit of stopping for the night. When the World-honoured one was 
about to attain to perfect Wisdom, the devas sang in the sky, 'The 
son of king l^uddhodana, having quitted his family and studied the 
Path (of Wisdom)*, will now in seven days become Buddha.' The Pra- 
tyeka Buddha heard their words, and immediately attained to nirvana; 
and hence this place was named *The Park of the rishi's Deer-wild^' 
After the World-honoured one had attained to perfect Wisdom, men 
built the vihdra in it. 

Buddha wished to convert Kaundinya ^ and his four companions ; but 

' 'The city surrounded by rivers;' the modem Bendres, lat. 25** 23' N., Ion. 

' 'The rishi/ says Eitel, 'is a man whose bodily frame has undergone a 
certain transformation by dint of meditation and asceticism, so that he is, for an 
indefinite period, exempt from decrepitude, age, and death. As this period is 
believed to extend far beyond the usual duration of human life, such persons are 
called, and popularly believed to be, immortals' Rishi s are divided into various 
classes; and rishi-ism is spoken of as a seventh path of transrotation, and rishi s 
are referred to as the seventh class of sentient beings. TSoism, as well as Buddhism, 
has its Seen jin. 

' See note 2, p. 40. 

* See note 4, p. 64. 

^ For another legend about this park, and the identification with *a fine wood' 
still existing, see note in Beal's first version, p. 135. 

' A prince of Magadha and a maternal uncle of SSkyamuni, who gave him 
the name of Ajfidta, meaning automat; and hence he often appears as 
Ajfiita Kaundinya. He and his four friends had followed ^dkyamuni into the 
UruvilvS desert, sympathising with him in the austerities he endured, and hoping 
that they would issue in his Buddhaship. They were not aware that that issue 
had come ; which may show us that all the accounts in the thirty-first chapter 



CONVERSION OF KAUNDINYA AND OTHERS. 95 

they, (being aware of his intention), said to one another, ' This Sramana 
Gotama^ for six years contmued in the practice of painful austerities, eating 
daily (only) a single hemp-seed, and one grain of rice, without attaining to 
the Path (of Wisdom) ; how much less will he do so now that he has entered 
(again) among men, and is giving the reins to (the indulgence of) his 
body, his speech, and his thoughts I What has he to do with the Path (of 
Wisdom) ? To-day, when he comes to us, let us be on our guard not to 
speak with him.' At the places where the five men all rose up, and 
respectfully saluted (Buddha), when he came to them ; where, sixty paces 
north from this, he sat with his face to the east, and first turned the 
wheel of the Law, converting Kaundinya and the four others ; where, 

are merely descriptions, by means of external imagery, of what had taken place 
internally. The kingdom of nirvdna had come without observation. These 
friends knew it not ; and they were offended by what they considered ^dkyamuni's 
failure, and the course he was now pursuing. See the account of their conversion 
in M. B., p. 186. 

* This is the only instance in F&-hien*s text where the Bodhisattva or Buddha 
is called by the surname * Gotama.' For the most part our traveller uses Buddha 
as a proper name, though it properly means * The Enlightened/ He uses also the 
combinations '^dkya Buddha,' =* The Buddha of the Sdkya tribe/ and * Sdkya- 
muni,'=*The Sdkya sage.' This last is the most common designation of the Buddha 
in China, and to my mind best combines the characteristics of a descriptive and a 
proper name. Among other Buddhistic peoples * Gotama' and *Gotama Buddha ' 
are the more frequent designations. It is not easy to account for the rise of the 
surname Gotama in the Sdkya family, as Oldenberg acknowledges. He says that 
* the Sdkyas, in accordance with the custom of Indian noble families, had borrowed 
it from one of the ancient Vedic bard families.' Dr. Davids (* Buddhism,' p. 27) 
says : ' The family name was certainly Gautama,' adding in a note, ' It is a curious 
fact that Gautama is still the family name of the Rajput chiefs of Nagara, the village 
which has been identified with Kapilavastu.' Dr. Eitel says that ' Gautama was 
the sacerdotal name of the Sdkya family, which counted the ancient rishi Gautama 
among its ancestors.' When we proceed, however, to endeavour to trace the con- 
nexion of that Brahmanical rishi with the Sdkya house, by means of 1323, 1468, 
1469, and other historical works in Nanjib's Catalogue, we soon find that Indian 
histories have no surer foundation than the shifting sand ; — see E. H., on the name 
6dkya, pp. 108, 109. We must be content for the present simply to accept Gotama 
as one of the siimames of the Buddha with whom we have to do. 



96 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

twenty paces further to the north, he delivered his prophecy concerning 
Maitreya^ ; and where, at a distance of fifty paces to the south, the dragon 
Eldpattra^ asked him, * When shall I get free from this n4ga body?' — at 
all these places topes were reared, and are still existing. In (the park) 
there are two monasteries, in both of which there are monks residing. 

When you go north-west from the vih&ra of the Deer-wild park for 
thirteen yojanas, there is a kingdom named Kau^mb!^ Its vih&ra 
is named Ghochiravana* — a place where Buddha formerly resided. Now, 
as of old, there is a company of monks there, most of whom are students 
of the hfnayftna. 

East from (this), when you have travelled eight yojanas, is the place 
where Buddha converted * the evil demon. There, and where he walked (in 
meditation) and sat at the place which was his regular abode, there have 
been topes erected. There is also a monastery, which may contain more 
than a hundred monks. 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

DAKSHINA, AND THE PIGEON MONASTERY. 

South from this 200 yojanas, there is a country named Dakshina^, 
where there is a monastery (dedicated to) the bygone Kaiyapa Buddha, 

* See note 3, p. 25. It is there said that the prediction of Maitreya's succession 
to the Buddhaship was made to him in the Tushita heaven. Was there a repetition of 
it here in the Deer-park, or was a prediction now given concerning something else ? 

' Nothing seems to be known of this ndga but what we read here. 
' Identified by some with Kusia, near Kurrah (lat. 25** 41' N., Ion. 81° 27'E.) ; by 
others with Kosam on the Jumna, thirty miles above Allahabad. See E. H., p. 55. 

* Ghochira was the name of a Vai^ya elder, or head, who presented a garden 
and vihdra to Buddha. Hardy (M. B., p. 356) quotes a statement from a Singhalese 
authority that Sakyamuni resided here during the ninth year of his Buddhaship. 

^ Dr. Davids thinks this may refer to the striking and beautiful story of the con- 
version of the Yakkha Ajavaka, as related in the Uragavagga, Alavakasutta, 
pp. 29-31 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. x, part ii). 

* Said to be the ancient name for the Deccan. As to the various marvels 
in the chapter, it must be borne in mind that our author, as he tells us at the 
end, only gives them from hearsay. See * Buddhist Records of the Western 
World,' vol. ii, pp. 214, 215, where the description, however, is very different. 



THE PIGEON MONASTERY OF DAK SHIN A. 97 

and which has been hewn out from a large hill of rock. It consists in all 
of five storeys ; — the lowest, having the form of an elephant, with 500 
apartments in the rock ; the second, having the form of a lion, with 
400 apartments ; the third, having the form of a horse, with 300 apart- 
ments ; the fourth, having the form of an ox, with aoo apartments ; 
and the fifth, having the form of a pigeon, with 100 apartments. At 
the very top there is a spring, the water of which, always in front of 
the apartments in the rock, goes round among the rooms, now circling, 
now curving, till in this way it arrives at the lowest storey, having followed 
the shape of the structure, and flows out there at the door. Everywhere 
in the apartments of the monks, the rock has been pierced so as to form 
windows for the admission of light, so that they are all bright, without 
any being left in darkness. At the four comers of the (tiers of) apart- 
ments, the rock has been hewn so as to form steps for ascending to the 
top (of each). The men of the present day, being of small size, and 
going up step by step, manage to get to the top ; but in a former age they 
did so at one step^. Because of this, the monastery is called Paravata, 
that being the Indian name for a pigeon. There are always Arhats 
residing in it. 

The country about is (a tract of) uncultivated hillocks ^, without in- 
habitants. At a very long distance from the hill there are villages, 
where the people all have bad and erroneous views, and do not know the 
Sramanas of the Law of Buddha, BrAhmanas, or (devotees of) any of the 
other and different schools. The people of that country are constantly 
seeing men on the wing, who come and enter this monastery. On one 
occasion, when devotees of various countries came to perform their worship 
at it, the people of those villages said to them, * Why do you not fly? 
The devotees whom we have seen hereabouts all fly ; ' and the strangers 
answered, on the spur of the moment, * Our wings are not yet fully formed.' 

The kingdom of Dakshina is out of the way, and perilous to traverse. 
There are difficulties in connexion with the roads ; but those who know 



* Compare the account of Buddha's great stride of fifteen yojanas in Ceylon, 
as related in chapter zxxviii. 

• Sec the same phrase in the Books of the Later Han dynasty, the twenty- 
fourth Book of Biographies, p. 9 b. 

o 



9« THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

how to manage such difficulties and wish to proceed should bring with 
them money and various articles, and give them to the king. He will 
then send men to escort them. These will (at different stages) pass 
them over to others, who will show them the shortest routes. FA*hien, 
however, was after all unable to go there; but having received the 
(above) accounts from men of the country, he has narrated them. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

IN PATNA. FA-HIEN'S LABOURS IN TRANSCRIPTION OF MANU- 
SCRIPTS, AND INDIAN STUDIES FOR THREE YEARS, 

From Virlnast (the travellers) went back east to Pfttaliputtra. F4- 
hien's original object had been to search for (copies of) the Vinaya. In 
the various kingdoms of North India, however, he had found one master 
transmitting orally (the rules) to another, but no written copies which he 
could transcribe. He had therefore travelled far and come on to Central 
India. Here, in the mahiyftna monastery \he found a copy of the Vinaya, 
containing the Mahds^nghika^ rules, — those which were observed in 
the first Great Council, while Buddha was still in the world. The 
original copy was handed down in the Jetavana vih4ra. As to the other 
eighteen schools ^, each one has the views and decisions of its own masters. 



* Mentioned before in chapter xxvii, 

* MaMsdhghik&h simply means 'the Great Assembly,' that is, of monks. 
When was this first assembly in the time of ^dkyamuni held? It does not 
appear that the rules observed at it were written down at the time. The document 
found by Fd-hien would be a record of those rules ; or rather a copy of that 
record. We must supf)ose that the original record had disappeared from the 
Jetavana vihdra, or Fd-hien would probably have spoken of it when he was 
there, and copied it, if he had been allowed to do so. 

* The eighteen p(i (pf). Four times in this chapter the character called 
pd occurs, and in the first and two last instances it can only have the meaning, 
often belonging to it, of * copy.' The second instance, however, is diflferent. How 
should there be eighteen copies, all different from the original, and from one 
another, in minor matters ? We are compelled to translate — * the eighteen schodii' 



MSS, COPIED. TAO-CHING REMAINS AT PA TNA. 99 

Those agree (with this) in the general meaning, but they have small and 
trivial differences, as when one opens and another shuts ^. This copy (of 
the rules), however, is the most complete, with the fullest explanations \ 

He further got a transcript of the rules in six or seven thousand 
g4thas®, being the sarvAstivdddh* rules, — those which are observed by 
the communities of monks in the land of Ts*in ; which also have all been 
handed down orally from master to master without being committed to 
writing. In the community here, moreover, he got the SamyuktAbhi- 
dharma-hridaya-(i$astra)', containing about six or seven thousand 
g4thas ; he also got a Sfttra of ^500 gAthas ; one chapter of the Parinir- 
v&na-vaipulya Si!ltra^ of about 5000 gAthas; and the Mah&sAn* 
ghik&h Abhidharma. 

In consequence (of this success in his quest) Fi-hien stayed here for 
three years, learning Sanskrit books and the Sanskrit speech, and writing 
out the Vinaya rules. When T4o-ching arrived in the Central Kingdom, 
and saw the rules observed by the Sramanas, and the dignified demeanour 
in their societies which he remarked under all occurring circumstances, 
he sadly called to mind in what a mutilated and imperfect condition the 
rules were among the monkish communities in the land of Ts*in, and 
made the following aspiration : — * From this time forth till I come to the 

an expression well known in all Buddhist writings. See Rhys Davids' Manual, 
p. a 1 8, and the authorities there quoted. 

* This is equivalent to the 'binding' and ' loosing,* 'opening' and * shutting,* 
which found their way into the New Testament, and the Christian Church, from 
the schools of the Jewish Rabbins. 

* It was afterwards translated by Fi-hien into Chinese. See Nanjio's Catalogue 
of the Chinese Tripitaka, columns 400 and 401, and Nos. 11 19 and 1150, 
columns 247 and 253. 

' A gSth& is a stanza, generally consisting, it has seemed to me, of a few, 
commonly of two, lines somewhat metrically arranged ; but I do not know that 
its length is strictly defined 

* 'A branch,' says Eitel, 'of the great vaibhSshika school, asserting thereality 
of all visible phenomena, and claiming the authority of Rlhula.' 

* See Nanjio's Catalogue, No. 1287. He does not mention it in his account 
of Fd-hien, who, he says, translated the Saqfiyukta-pitaka Siitra. 

* Probably Nanjio's Catalogue, No. lao ; at any rate, connected with it. 

o z 



> ; 



lOO THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

state of Buddha, let me not be bom in a frontier land ^' He remained 
accordingly (in India), and did not return (to the land of Han). F4-hien, 
however, whose original purpose had been to secure the introduction of 
the complete Vinaya rules into the land of Han, returned there alone. 

CHAPTER XXXVn. 

TO CHAMPA AND tAmALIPTI. STAY AND LABOURS THERE FOR 
THREE YEARS. TAKES SHIP TO SINGHALA, OR CEYLON. 

Following the course of the Ganges, and descending eastwards for 
eighteen yojanas, he found on the southern bank the g^eat kingdom 
of Champft*, with topes reared at the places where Buddha walked in 
meditation by his vih&ra, and where he and the three Buddhas, his 
predecessors, sat. There were monks residing at them all. Continuing 
his journey east for nearly fifty yojanas, he came to the country of 
TAmalipti *, (the capital of which is) a seaport. In the country there 
are twenty-two monasteries, at all of which there are monks residing. 
The Law of Buddha is also flourishing in it. Here Fcl-hien stayed two 
years, writing out his SCitras *, and drawing pictures of images. 

After this he embarked in a large merchant-vessel, and went floating 
over the sea to the south-west. It was the beginning of winter, and the 
wind was favourable ; and, after fourteen days, sailing day and night, they 
came to the country of Singhala '. The people said that it was distant 
(from TAmalipti) about 700 yojanas. 

* This then would be the consummation of the Sramana's being, — to get to 
be Buddha, the Buddha of his time in his Kalpa; and T&o-ching thought that 
he could attain to this consummation by a succession of births ; and was likely 
to attain to it sooner by living only in India. If all this was not in his mind, he 
yet felt that each of his successive lives would be happier, if lived in India. 

* Probably the modern Champanagur, three miles west of Baglipoor, lat 25^ 14^ 
N., Ion. 56° 55' E. 

' Then the principal emporium for the trade with Ceylon and China ; the modem 
Tarn-look, lat. 22** 17' N., Ion. 88° 2' E. ; near the mouth of the Hoogly. 

^ Perhaps Ching (jj|^ is used here for any portions of the Tripitaka which 
he had obtained. 

' 'The Kingdom of the Lion/ Ceylon. Singhala was the name of a 



SINGHALA, OR CEYLON. loi 

The kingdom is on a large island, extending from east to west fifty 
yojanas, and from north to south thirty. I^eft and right from it there 
are as many as lOO small islands, distant from one another ten, twenty, 
or even 200 le ; but all subject to the large island. Most of them produce 
pearls and precious stones of various kinds ; there is one which produces 
the pure and brilliant pearl ^, — an island which would form a square of 
about ten le. The king employs men to watch and protect it, and 
requires three out of every ten such pearls, which the collectors find. 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

AT CEYLON. RISE OF THE KINGDOM. FEATS OF BUDDHA. TOPES 
AND MONASTERIES. STATUE OF BUDDHA IN JADE. BO TREE. 
FESTIVAL OF BUDDHA*S TOOTH. 

The country originally had no human inhabitants^, but was occupied 
only by spirits and nigas, with which merchants of various countries 
carried on a trade. When the trafficking was taking place, the spirits 
did not show themselves. They simply set forth their precious commo- 
dities, with labels of the price attached to them ; while the merchants 
made their purchases according to the price ; and took the things away. 

Through the coming and going of the merchants (in this way), when 
they went away, the people of (their) various countries heard how 
pleasant the land was, and flocked to it in numbers till it became a 



merchant adventurer from India, to whom the founding of the kingdom was 
ascribed. His father was named Singha, ' the Lion,* which became the name of the 
country ; — Singhala, or Singha-Kingdom, * the Country of the Lion.' 

^ Called the mani pearl or bead. Man! is explained as meaning 'free from 
stain,' * bright and growing purer.' It is a symbol of Buddha and of his Law. 
The most ^'aluable rosaries are made of manis. 

• It is desirable to translate K ^, for which 'inhabitants' or 'people' is 
elsewhere suflScient, here by * human inhabitants.' According to other accounts 
Singhala was originally occupied by Rdkshasas or Rakshas, 'demons who 
devour men,' and 'beings to be feared,' monstrous cannibals or anthropophagi, 
the terror of the shipwrecked mariner. Our author's 'spirits '(j^ ^^) were 
of a gentler type. His dragons or n&gas have come before us again and again. 



I02 THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

great nation. The (climate) is temperate and attractive, without any 
difference of summer and winter. The vegetation is always luxuriant. 
Cultivation proceeds whenever men think Rt : there are no ifixed seasons 
for it. 

When Buddha came to this country S wishing to transform the wicked 
n&gas, by his supernatural power he planted one foot at the north of the 
royal city, and the other on the top of a mountain *, the two being fifteen 
yojanas apart. Over the footprint at the north of the dty the king built 
a large tope, 400 cubits high, grandly adorned with gold and silver, and 
finished with a combination of all the precious substances. By the side 
of the tope he further built a monastery, called the Abhayagiri •, where 
there are (now) five thousand monks. There is in it a hall of Buddha» 
adorned with carved and inlaid work of gold and silver, and rich in the 
seven precious substances, in which there is an image (of Buddha) in 
green jade, more than twenty cubits in height, glittering all over with those 
substances, and having an appearance of solemn dignity which words 
cannot express. In the palm of the right hand there is a priceless pearl. 
Several years had now elapsed since F&-hien left the land of Han ; the 

^ That ^dkyamuni ever visited Ceylon is to me more than doubtful Hardy, 
in M. B., pp. 207-2 1 3, has brought together the legends of three visits, — ^in the first, 
fifth, and eighth years of his Buddhaship. It is plain, however, from FS-hien's 
narrative, that in the beginning of our fifth century. Buddhism prevailed throughout 
the island. Davids in the last chapter of his ' Buddhism ' ascribes its introduction 
to one of Anoka's missions, after the Council of Patna, under his son Mahinda, 
when Tissa, ' the delight of the gods,' was king (b. c. 250-230). 

* This would be what is known as 'Adam's peak,' having, according to 
Hardy (pp. 211, 212, notes), the three names of Selesumano, Samastak6ta» and 
Samanila. ' There is an indentation on the top of it,' a superficial hollow, 5 feet 
3f inches long, and about i\ feet wide. The Hindus regard it as the footprint of 
^iva ; the Mohammedans, as that of Adam ; and the Buddhists, as in the text, — 
as having been made by Buddha. 

' Meaning 'The Fearless Hill.' There is still the Abhayagiri tope, the 
highest in Ceylon, according to Davids, 250 feet in height, and built about B.& 
90, by Watta Gamini, in whose reign, about 160 years after the Council of Patna, 
and 330 years after the death of S&kyamuni, the Tripitaka was first reduced to 
writing in Ceylon ; — ' Buddhism,' p. 234. 



THE FAMOUS BO TREE. 103 

men with whom he had been in intercourse had all been of r^ons strange 
to him ; his eyes had not rested on an old and familiar hill or river, plant 
or tree: his fellow-travellers, moreover, had been separated from him, 
some by deaths and others flowing off in different directions ; no face or 
shadow was now with him but his own, and a constant sadness was in 
his heart. Suddenly (one day), when by the side of this image of jade, 
he saw a merchant presenting as his offering a fan of white silk ^ ; and 
the tears of sorrow involuntarily filled his eyes and fell down. 

A former king of the country had sent to Central India and got a slip 
of the patra tree^ which he planted by the side of the hall of Buddha, 
where a tree grew up to the height of about 200 cubits* As it bent 
on one side towards the south-east, the king, fearing it would fall, 
propped it with a post eight or nine spans round. The tree began to 
grow at the very heart of the prop, where it met (the trunk) ; (a shoot) 
pierced through the post, and went down to the ground, where it entered 
and formed roots, that rose (to the surface) and were about four spans 
round. Although the post was split in the middle, the outer portions kept 

* We naturally suppose that the merchant-offerer was a Chinese, as indeed the 
Chinese texts say, and the fan such as Fd-hien had seen and used in his native land. 

* This should be the pippala, or bodhidruma, generally spoken of, in con- 
nexion with Buddha, as the Bo tree, under which he attained to the Buddhaship. 
It is strange our author should have confounded them as he seems to do. In 
what we are told of the tree here, we have, no doubt, his account of the planting, 
growth, and preservation of the fiamous Bo tree, which still exists in Ceylon. It 
has been stated in a previous note that Anoka's son, Mahinda, went as the 
apostle of Buddhism to Ceylon. By-and-by he sent for his sister Sanghamittd, 
who had entered the order at the same time as himself, and whose help was 
needed, some of the king's female relations having signified their wish to become 
nuns. On leaving India, she took with her a branch of the sacred Bo tree at 
Buddha Gayd, under which ^akyamuni had become Buddha. Of how the tree 
has grown and still lives we have an account in Davids' * Buddhism.' He quotes 
the words of Sir Emerson Tennent, that it is *the oldest historical tree in the 
world;' but this must be denied if it be true, as Eitel says, that the tree at Buddha 
Gayi, from which the slip that grew to be this tree was taken more than 2000 
years ago, is itself still living in its place. We might conclude that F&-hien, when 
in Ceylon, heard neither of Mahinda nor Sanghamittd. 



J04 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HI EN. 

hold (of the shoot), and people did not remove them. Beneath the tree 
there has been built a vih&ra, in which there is an image (of Buddha) 
seated, which the monks and commonalty reverence and look up to 
without ever becoming wearied. In the city there has been reared also 
the vih&ra of Buddha's tooth, on which, as well as on the other, the 
seven precious substances have been employed. 

The king practises the Brahmanical purifications, and the sincerity of 
the faith and reverence of the population inside the city are also great. 
Since the establishment of government in the kingdom there has been no 
famine or scarcity, no revolution or disorder. In the treasuries of the 
monkish communities there are many precious stones, and the priceless 
m a n i s . One of the kings (once) entered one of those treasuries, and when 
he looked all round and saw the priceless pearls, his covetous greed was 
excited, and he wished to take them to himself by force. In three days, 
however, he came to himself, and immediately went and bowed his head to 
the ground in the midst of the monks, to show his repentance of the evil 
thought. As a sequel to this, he informed the monks (of what had been 
in his mind), and desired them to make a regulation that from that day 
forth the king should not be allowed to enter the treasury and see (what 
it contained), and that no bhikshu should enter it till after he had been 
in orders for a period of full forty years ^. 

In the city there are many Vai^ya elders and Sabsean ^ merchants, 
whose houses are stately and beautiful. The lanes and passages are 
kept in good order. At the heads of the four principal streets there 
have been built preaching halls, where, on the eighth, fourteenth, and 
fifteenth days of the month, they spread carpets, and set forth a pulpit, 
while the monks and commonalty from all quarters come together to hear 
th^ Law. The people say that in the kingdom there may be altogether 
sixty thousand monks, who get their food from their common stores. 

^r ^Compare what is said in chap, xvi, about the inquiries made at monasteries 
as to the standing of visitors in the monkhood, and duration of their ministry. 

• The phonetic values of the two Chinese characters here are in Sanskrit 
sS; and vS, bo or bhd. 'Sabaean' is Mr. Beal's reading of them, probably 
correct. I suppose the merchants were Arabs, forerunners of the so-called 
Moormen, who still form so important a part of the mercantile community in 
Ceylon. 



FESTIVAL OF BUDDHA'S TOOTH, 105 

The king, besides, prepares elsewhere in the city a common supply of 
food for five or six thousand more. When any want, they take their 
great bowls, and go (to the place of distribution)^ and take as much as the 
vessels will hold, all returning with them full. 

The tooth of Buddha is always brought forth in the middle of the 
third month. Ten days beforehand the king grandly caparisons a large 
elephant, on which he mounts a man who can speak distinctly, and is 
dressed in royal robes, to beat a large drum, and make the following pro- 
clamation : — *The Bodhisattva, during three Asankhyeya-kalpas^, 
manifested his activity, and did not spare his own life. He gave up king- 
dom, dty, wife, and son ; he plucked out his eyes and gave them to 
another^; he cut off a piece of his flesh to ransom the life of a dove^; he 
cut off his head and gave it as an alms ^ ; he gave his body to feed a 
starving tigress^; he grudged not his marrow and brains. In many 
such ways as these did he undergo pain for the sake of all living. And 
so it was, that, having become Buddha, he continued in the world for 
forty-five years, preaching his Law, teaching and transforming, so that 
those who had no rest found rest, and the unconverted were converted. 
When his connexion with the living was completed*, he attained to 
pari-nirvdna (and died). Since that event, for 1497 years, the light of 
the world has gone out *, and all living beings have had long-continued 
sadness. Behold ! ten days after this, Buddha's tooth will be brought 
forth, and taken to the Abhayagiri-vihdra. Let all and each, whether 

^ A Kalpa, we have seen, denotes a great period of time; a period during 
vhich a physical universe is formed and destroyed. Asahkhyeya denotes 
the highest sum for which a conventional term exists; — according to Chinese 
calculations equal to one followed by seventeen ciphers ; according to Thibetan 
and Singhalese, equal to one followed by ninety-seven ciphers. Every Mahd- 
kalpa consists of four Asankhyeya-kalpas. Eitel, p. 15. 

• See chapter ix. 
' See chapter xi. 

* He had been born in the ^kya house, to do for the world what the character 
of all his past births required, and he had done it. 

^ They could no more see him, the World-honoured one. Compare the 
Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, Buddhist Suttas, pp. 89, 121, and note 
on p. 89. 

P 



io6 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

monks or laics, who wish to amass merit for themselves, make the 
roads smooth and in good condition, grandly adorn the lanes and 
by-ways, and provide abundant store of flowers and incense to be used 
as offerings to it.' 

When this proclamation is over, the king exhibits, so as to line both 
sides of the road, the five hundred different bodily forms in which the 
Bodhisattva has in the course of his history appeared : — here as Suddna ^» 
there as S&ma^; now as the king of elephants^, and then as a stag 
or a horse®. All these figures are brightly coloured and grandly 
executed, looking as if they were alive. After this the tooth of Buddha 
is brought forth, and is carried along in the middle of the road. Every- 
where on the way offerings are presented to it, and thus it arrives at the 
hall of Buddha in the Abhayagiri-vihdra. There monks and laics are 

^ Sudina or Sudatta was the name of the Bodhisattva in the birth which 
preceded his appearance as ^kyamuni or Gotama, when he became the 
Supreme Buddha. This period is known as the Vessantara J&taka, of which 
Hardy, M. B., pp. 1 16-124, gives a long account; see also 'Buddhist Birth 
Stories,' the Nid^na Kath^,p. 158. In it, as Sudana, he fulfilled <the Perfections/ 
his distinguishing attribute being entire self-renunciation and alms-giving, so that 
in the Niddna Kath& he is made to say (' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 158) : — 

' This earth, unconscious though she be, and ignorant of joy or grief, 
Even she by my free-giving's mighty power was shaken seven times.' 
Then, when he passed away, he appeared in the Tushita heaven, to enter in 
due time the womb of Mahd-mdyd, and be born as Sdkyamuni. 

' I take the name Sdma from Beal's revised version. He says in a note 
that the Sdma Jdtaka, as well as the Vessantara, is represented in the Siiichi 
sculptures. But what the Sama Jataka was I do not yet know. But adopting 
this name, the two Chinese characters in the text should be translated ' the change 
into Sima.' R^musat gives for them, * la transformation en &lair ; ' Beal, in his 
first version, ^ his appearance as a bright flash of light ; ' Giles, ' as a flash of 
lightning;' my own first version was *as the changing flashes of lightning.* 
Julien's M^thode does not give the phonetic value in Sanskrit of 1^. 

' In an analysis of the number of times and the different forms in which 
Sdkyamuni had appeared in his Jataka births, given by Hardy (M. B., p. 100), 
it is said that he had appeared six times as an elephant ; ten times as a deer ; 
and four times as a horse. 



CREMATION OF AN ARHAT. 107 

collected in crowds. They bum incense, light lamps, and perform all the 
prescribed services, day and night without ceasing, till ninety days have 
been completed, when (the tooth) is returned to the vih&ra within the 
city. On fast -days the door of that vihdra is opened, and the forms of 
ceremonial reverence are observed according to the rules. 

Forty le to the east of the Abhayagiri-vih4ra there is a hill, with a 
vih4ra on it, called the Chaitya^, where there may be aooo monks. 
Among them there is a Sramana of great virtue, named Dharma-gupta^ 
honoured and looked up to by all the kingdom. He has lived for more 
than forty years in an apartment of stone, constantly showing such gentle- 
ness of heart, that he has brought snakes and rats to stop together in the 
same room, without doing one another any harm. 

CHAPTER XXXIX, 

CREMATION OF AN ARHAT. SERMON OF A DEVOTEE. 

South of the city seven le there is a vihdra, called the Mah4-vih4ra, 
where 3000 monks reside. There had been among them a oramana, of such 
lofty virtue, and so holy and pure in his observance of the disciplinary 
rules, that the people all surmised that he was an Arhat. When he 
drew near his end, the king came to examine into the point ; and having 
assembled the monks according to rule, asked whether the bhikshu had 
attained to the full degree of Wisdom ^. They answered in the affirma- 
tive, saying that he was an Arhat. The king accordingly, when he died, 
buried him after the fashion of an Arhat, as the regular rules prescribed. 

^ Chaitja is a general term designating all places and objects of religious wor- 
ship which have a reference to ancient Buddhas, and including therefore StApas 
and temples as well as sacred relics, pictures, statues, &c. It is defined as 'a 
fane,' 'a place for worship and presenting offerings.' Eitel, p. 141. The hill 
referred to is the sacred hill of Mihintale, about eight miles due east of the 
Bo tree; — Davids' Buddhism, pp. 230, 231. 

^ Eitel says (p. 31): 'A famous ascetic, the founder of a school, which 
flourished in Ceylon, a.d. 400/ But F&-hien gives no intimation of Dharma- 
gupta's founding a school. 

' Possibly, ' and asked the bhikshu,' &c. I prefer the other way of construing, 
however. 

pa 



lo8 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 

Four or five le east from the vih4ra there was reared a great pile of fire- 
wood, which might be more than thirty cubits square, and the same in 
height. Near the top were laid sandal, aloe, and other kinds of 
fragrant wood. 

On the four sides (of the pile) they made steps by which to ascend it. 
With clean white hair-cloth, almost like silk, they wrapped (the body) 
round and round ^ They made a large carriage-frame, in form like our 
funeral car, but without the dragons and fishes ^. 

At the time of the cremation, the king and the people, in multitudes 
from all quarters, collected together, and presented offerings of flowers 
and incense. While they were following the car to the burial-ground •, 
the king himself presented flowers and incense. When this was finished, 
the car was lifted on the pile, all over which oil of sweet basil was 
poured, and then a light was applied. While the fire was blazing, every 
one, with a reverent heart, pulled off his upper garment, and threw it, 
with his feather-fan and umbrella, from a distance into the midst of the 
flames, to assist the burning. When the cremation was over, they 
collected and preserved the bones, and proceeded to erect a tope. Fft- 
hien had not arrived in time (to see the distinguished Shaman) alive, 
and only saw his burial. 

At that time the king*, who was a sincere believer in the Law of Buddha 
and wished to build a new vihdra for the monks, first convoked a great 

* It seems strange that this should have been understood as a wrapping of the 
immense pyre with the cloth. There is nothing in the text to necessitate such a 
version, but the contrary. Compare * Buddhist Suttas/ pp. 92, 93. 

* See the description of a funeral car and its decorations in the Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. xxviii, the Lt K\, Book XIX. Fd-hien's ](J^ ^, 
* in this (country),' which I have expressed by ' our,' shows that whatever notes 
of this cremation he had taken at the time, the account in the text was 
composed after his return to China, and when he had the usages there in 
his mind and perhaps before his eyes. This disposes of all difficulty 
occasioned by the ' dragons ' and ' fishes.' The 'S^ at the end is merely the 
concluding particle. 

* The pyre served the purpose of a burial-ground or grave, and hence our 
author writes of it as such. 

* This king must have been Mah&-nSna (a. d. 410-432). In the time of his 



SERMON ON THE ALMS-BOWL OF BUDDHA. 109 

assembly. After giving the monks a meal of rice, and presenting his 
offerings (on the occasion), he selected a pair of first-rate oxen, the 
horns of which were grandly decorated with gold, silver, and the 
precious substances. A golden plough had been provided, and the king 
himself turned up a furrow on the four sides of the ground within which 
the building was to be. He then endowed the community of the monks 
with the population, fields, and houses, writing the grant on plates of 
metal, (to the effect) that from that time onwards, from generation to 
generation, no one should venture to annul or alter it. 

In this country Fi-hien heard an Indian devotee, who was reciting 
a SOtra from the pulpit^ say: — * Buddha's alms-bowl was at first in Vai^dli, 
and now it is in Gandh&ra ^. After so many hundred years ' (he gave, 
when Fd-hien heard him, the exact number of years, but he has for- 
gotten it), *it will go to Western Tukhdra^; after so many hundred 
years, to Khoten ; after so many hundred years, to Kharachar ^ ; after 
so many hundred years, to the land of Han ; after so many hundred 
years, it will come to Siohala; and after so many hundred years, it 
will return to Central India. After that, it will ascend to the Tushita 
heaven ; and when the Bodhisattva Maitreya sees it, he will say with a 
sigh, " The alms-bowl of odkyamuni Buddha is come;" and with all the 
devas he will present to it flowers and incense for seven days. When 
these have expired, it will return to Jambudvtpa, where it will be received 
by the king of the sea ndgas, and taken into his n&ga palace. When 
Maitreya shall be about to attain to perfect Wisdom (and become 
Buddha), it will again separate into four bowls *, which will return to the 
top of mount Anna ^ whence they came. After Maitreya has become 

predecessor, Upatissa (a. d. 368-410), the pitakas were first translated into 
Singhalese. Under Mahi-nSna, Buddhaghosha wrote his commentaries. Both 
were great builders of vihdras. See the Mahdvani^a, pp. 247, foil. 

* See chapter xii. F4-hien had seen it at Punishapura, which Eitel says was 
' the ancient capital of Gandhdra.' 

* Western Tukhdra (|f^ JJj^) is the same probably as the Tukhdra (JJj^) 
of chapter xii, a king of which is there described as trying to carry off the 
bowl from Punishapura. 

^ North of the Bosteng lake at the foot of the Thien-shan range (E. H., p. 56). 

* See note 3, p. 35. Instead of * Anna ' the Chinese recensions have Vtna ; 



110 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. 

Buddha, the four deva kings will again think of the Buddha (with their 
bowls as they did in the case of the previous Buddha). The thousand 
Buddhas of this Bhadra-kalpa, indeed, will all use the same alms-bowl ; 
and when the bowl has disappeared, the Law of Buddha will go on 
gradually to be extinguished. After that extinction has taken place, 
the life of man will be shortened, till it is only a period of five years. 
During this period of a five years' life, rice, butter, and oil will all 
vanish away, and men will become exceedingly wicked. The grass and 
trees which they lay hold of will change into swords and clubs, with 
which they will hurt, cut, and kill one another. Those among them on 
whom there is blessing will withdraw from society among the hills ; 
and when the wicked have exterminated one another, they will again 
come forth, and say among themselves, " The men of former times 
enjoyed a very great longevity; but through becoming exceedingly 
wicked, and doing all lawless things, the length of our life has been 
shortened and reduced even to five years. Let us now unite together in 
the practice of what is good, cherishing a gentle and sympathising heart, 
and carefully cultivating good faith and righteousness. When each one 
in this way practises that faith and righteousness, life will go on to 
double its length till it reaches 80,000 years. When Maitreya appears 
in the world, and begins to turn the wheel of his Law, he will in the first 
place save those among the disciples of the Law left by the o&kya who 
have quitted their families, and those who have accepted the three 
Refuges, undertaken the five Prohibitions and the eight Abstinences, and 
given offerings to the three Precious Ones ; secondly and thirdly, he will 
save those between whom and conversion there is a connexion trans- 
mitted from the past ^." ' 

(Such was the discourse), and F4-hien wished to write it down 
as a portion of doctrine ; but the man said, * This is taken from no 
Sfitra, it is only the utterance of my own mind.' 

but Vina or Vtnataka, and Ana for SudariSana are names of one or other 
of the concentric circles of rocks surrounding mount Meru, the fabled home 
of the deva guardians of the bowl. 

^ That is, those whose Karma in the past should be rewarded by such 
conversion in the present. 



PASSAGE TO CHINA BY SEA. iii 



CHAPTER XL. 

AFTER TWO YEARS TAKES SHIP FOR CHINA. DISASTROUS PASSAGE 
TO JAVA ; AND THENCE TO CHINA ; ARRIVES AT SHAN-TUNG ; 
AND GOES TO NANKING. CONCLUSION OR l'ENVOI BY ANOTHER 
WRITER. 

FA-HIEN abode in this country two years ; and, in addition (to his ' a 

acquisitions in Patna), succeeded in getting a copy of the Vinaya- 
pitaka of the Maht^dsakdh (school)^; the Dirgh4gama and 
Samyuktigama^ (SCltras) ; and also the Saqiyukta-sanchaya- 
pitaka^; — all being works unknown in the land of Han. Having 
obtained these Sanskrit works, he took passage in a large merchantman, 
on board of which there were more than 200 men, and to which was 
attached by a rope a smaller vessel, as a provision against damage 
or injury to the large one from the perils of the navigation. With 
a favourable wind, they proceeded eastwards for three days, and then 
they encountered a great wind. The vessel sprang a leak and the water 
came in. The merchants wished to go to the smaller vessel; but the men 
on board it, fearing that too many would come, cut the connecting rope. 
The merchants were greatly alarmed, feeling their risk of instant death. 
Afraid that the vessel would fill, they took their bulky goods and threw 

* No. 1 1 22 in Nanjio*s Catalogue, translated into Chinese by Buddhajlva and 
a Chinese Sramana about a.d. 425. Mahtsdsakdh means ' the school of the trans- 
formed earth,* or *the sphere within which the Law of Buddha is influential.' 
The school is one of the subdivisions of the SarvistivSdih. 

' Nanjio's 545 and 504. The Agamas are Siitras of the htnaydna, 
divided, according to Eitel, pp. 4, 5, into four classes, the first or Dirghiga- 
mas (long Agamas) being treatises on right conduct, while the third class 
contains the Samyuktsigamas (mixed Agamas). 

' Meaning * Miscellaneous Collections ; * a sort of fourth Pitaka. See Nanjio's 
fourth division of the Canon, containing Indian and Chinese miscellaneous 
works. But Dr. Davids says that no work of this name is known either in 
Sanskrit or Pdli literature. 



113 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN, 

them into the water. F4-hien also took his pitcher^ and washing- 
basin, with some other articles, and cast them into the sea ; but fearing 
that the merchants would cast overboard his books and images, he could 
only think with all his heart of Kwan-she-yin *, and commit his life to 
(the protection of) the church of the land of Han ®, (saying in effect), 
' I have travelled far in search of our Law. Let me, by your dread and 
supernatural (power), return from my wanderings, and reach my resting- 
place ! * 

In this way the tempest* continued day and night, till on the 
thirteenth day the ship was carried to the side of an island, where, 
on the ebbing of the tide, the place of the leak was discovered^ and 
it was stopped, on which the voyage was resumed. On the sea 
(hereabouts) there are many pirates^ to meet with whom is speedy 
death. The great ocean spreads out, a boundless expanse. There 
is no knowing east or west ; only by observing the sun, moon, and 
stars was it possible to go forward. If the weather were dark and 
rainy, (the ship) went as she was carried by the wind, without any 
definite course. In the darkness of the night, only the great waves 
were to be seen, breaking on one another, and emitting a brightness 
like that of fire, with huge turtles and other monsters of the deep 
(all about). The merchants were full of terror, not knowing where they 
were going. The sea was deep and bottomless, and there was no place 
where they could drop anchor and stop. But when the sky became 
clear, they could tell east and west, and (the ship) again went forward in 



^ We have in the text a phonetisation of the Sanskrit KundikS, which is 
explained in Eitel by the two characters that follow, as=' washing basin,' but two 
things evidently are intended. 

* See note 5, p. 46. 

' At his novitiate Fd-hien had sought the refuge of the 'three Precious 
Ones ' (the three Refuges [^ ^1 of last chapter), of which the congregation 
or body of the monks was one; and here his thoughts turn naturally to the 
branch of it in China. His words in his heart were not exactly words of prayer^ 
but very nearly so. 

* In the text ^ JJ^,, td-fung, *the great wind,'=the typhoon. 



THEY GET TO LAND, 113 

the right direction. If she had come on any hidden rock, there would 
have been no way of escape. 

After proceeding in this way for rather more than ninety days, they 
arrived at a country called Java-dvipa, where various forms of error and 
Brahmanism are flourishing, while Buddhism in it is not worth speaking 
of. After staying there for five months, (F4-hien) again embarked in 
another large merchantman, which also had on board more than 200 
men. They carried provisions for fifty days, and commenced the 
voyage on the sixteenth day of the fourth month. 

Fd-hien kept his retreat on board the ship. They took a course 
to the north-east, intending to fetch Kwang-chow. After more than a 
month, when the night-drum had sounded the second watch, they 
encountered a black wind and tempestuous rain, which threw the 
merchants and passengers into consternation. Fd-hien again with 
all his heart directed his thoughts to Kwan-she-yin and the monkish 
communities of the land of Han ; and, through their dread and 
mysterious protection, was preserved to day-break. After day-break, 
the Brahmans deliberated together and said, * It is having this oramana 
on board which has occasioned our misfortune and brought us this 
great and bitter suffering. Let us land the bhikshu and place him 
on some island-shore. We must not for the sake of one man allow 
ourselves to be exposed to such imminent peril.* A patron of Fd-hien, 
however, said to them, * If you land the bhikshu, you must at the 
same time land me ; and if you do not, then you must kill me. If you 
land this Sramana, when I get to the land of Han, I will go to the king, 
and inform against you. The king also reveres and believes the Law 
of Buddha, and honours the bhikshus.* The merchants hereupon were 
perplexed, and did not dare immediately to land (Fd-hien). 

At this time the sky continued very dark and gloomy, and the , ^ j:,-:^ 
sailing-masters looked at one another and made mistakes. More than w ^V p'! 
seventy days passed (from their leaving Java), and the provisions and 
water were nearly exhausted. They used the salt-water of the sea for 
cooking, and carefully divided the (fresh) water, each man getting two 
pints. Soon the whole was nearly gone, and the merchants took 
counsel and said, * At the ordinary rate of sailing we ought to have \ 
reached Kwang-chow, and now the time is passed by many days; — j 

q 



!^] 



114 THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

must we not have held a wrong course ? * Immediately they directed the 
ship to the north-west, looking out for land ; and after sailing day and night 
for twelve days, they reached the shore on the south of mount L4o ^, 
on the borders of the prefecture of Ch'ang-kwang ^, and immediately got 
good water and vegetables. They had passed through many perils and 
hardships, and had been in a state of anxious apprehension for many 
days together; and now suddenly arriving at this shore, and seeing 
those (well-known) v^etables, the lei and kwoh*, they knew indeed 
that it was the land of Han. Not seeing, however, any inhabitants 
nor any traces of them, they did not know whereabouts they were. 
Some said that they had not yet got to Kwang-chow, and others that 
they had passed it. Unable to come to a definite conclusion, (some of 
them) got into a small boat and entered a creek, to look for some one 
of whom they might ask what the place was. They found two hunters, 
whom they brought back with them, and then called on Fd-hien to act 
as interpreter and question them. F&-hien first spoke assuringly to 
them, and then slowly and distinctly asked them, *Who are you?* 
They replied, * We are disciples of Buddha ? ' He then asked, ' What 
are you looking for among these hills ? ' They began to lie ', and said, 



^ They had got to the south of the Shan-tung promontory, and the foot of mount 
L&o, which still rises under the same name on the extreme south of the peninsala, 
east from Kedo Chow, and having the district of Tseih-mih on the east of it 
All the country there is included in the present Phing-too Chow of the department 
Lde-chow. The name Phing-too dates from the Han dynasty, but under the 
dynasty of the After Ch'e (^^ ^)> (a-^' 479-6oi)> i^ was changed into Ch'ang- 
kwang. Fd-hien may have lived, and composed the narrative of his travels, 
after the change of name was adopted. See the Topographical Tables of the 
different Dynasties (^ >^ ^ ^ ^), published in 1815. 

' What these vegetables exactly were it is difficult to say; and there are 
different readings of the characters for them. Williams' Dictionary, under kwoh, 
brings the two names together in a phrase, but the rendering of it is simply ' a 
soup of simples.' For two or three columns here, however, the text appears to 
me confused and imperfect. 

* I suppose these men were really hunters; and, when brought before F4- 
hien, because he was a Sramana, they thought they would please him by saying 



/ 



END OF THE TRAVELS. 115 

* To-morrow is the fifteenth day of the seventh month. We wanted to 
get some peaches to present ^ to Buddha.' He asked further, * What 
country is this?' They replied, *This is the border of the prefecture 
of Ch*ang-kwang, a part of Ts*ing-chow under the (ruling) House of 
Tsin.' When they heard this, the merchants were glad, immediately 
asked for (a portion of) their money and goods, and sent men to Ch*ang- 
kwang city. 

The prefect Le E was a reverent believer in the Law of Buddha. 
When he heard that a Sramana had arrived in a ship across the sea, 
bringing with him books and images, he immediately came to the sea- 
shore with an escort to meet (the traveller), and receive the books and 
images, and took them back with him to the seat of his government. . ^ 
On this the merchants went back in the direction of Yang- chow * ; (but) y^l] ' 
when (F4-hien) arrived at Ts'ing-chow, (the prefect there) ^ b^ged him 
(to remain with him) for a winter and a summer. After the summer 
retreat was ended, FA-hien, having been separated for a long time from 
his (fellow-)masters, wished*, to hurry to Ch'ang-gan ; but as the business 
which he had in hand was important, he went south to the Capital ^ ; and 
at an interview with the masters (there) exhibited the SOtras and the 
collection of the Vinay a (which he had procured). 

After Fd-hien set out from Ch*ang-gan, it took him six years to reach 

they were disciples of Buddha. But what had disciples of Buddha to do with 
hunting and taking life ? They were caught in their own trap, and said they 
were looking for peaches. 

* The Chinese character here has occurred twice before, but in a different 
meaning and connexion. R^musat, Beal, and Giles take it as equivalent to 
*to sacrifice.' But his followers do not 'sacrifice' to Buddha. That is a 
priestly term, and should not be employed of anything done at Buddhistic 
services. 

* Probably the present department of Yang-chow in Keang-soo ; but as I have 
said in a previous note, the narrative does not go on so clearly as it generally 
does. 

* Was, or could, this prefect be Le E ? 

* Probably not Ch'ang-gan, but Nan-king, which was the capital of the Eastern 
Tsin dynasty under another name. 

q ^ 



ii6 THE TEA VELS OF fX-HIEN. 

Central India ^ ; stoppages there extended over (other) six years ; and on 
his return it took him three years to reach Ts'ing-chow. The countries 
through which he passed were a few under thirty. From the sandy 
desert westwards on to India, the beauty of the dignified demeanour of 
the monkhood and of the transforming influence of the Law was beyond 
the power of language fully to describe ; and reflecting how our masters 
had not heard any complete account of them, he therefore (went on) 
without r^arding his own poor life, or (the dangers to be encountered) 
on the sea upon his return, thus incurring hardships and difficulties in a 
double form. He was fortunate enough, through the dread power of 
the three Honoured Ones ^, to receive help and protection in his perils ; 
and therefore he wrote out an account of his experiences, that worthy 
readers might share with him in what he had heard and said ^. 

It was in the year Keah-yin*, the twelfth year of the period E-he of the 



* The whole of this paragraph is probably Fi-hien's own conclusion of his 
narrative. The second half of the second sentence, both in sentiment and sQrle 
in the Chinese text, seems to necessitate our ascribing it to him, writing on the 
impulse of his own thoughts, in the same indirect form which he adopted for his 
whole narrative. There are, however, two peculiar phraseologies in it which 
might suggest the work of another hand. For the name India, where the first ^ 
is placed, a character is employed which is similarly applied nowhere else ; and 
again, *■ the three Honoured Ones,' at which the second ^ is placed, must be the 
same as ' the three Precious Ones/ which we have met with so often ; unless we 
suppose that ^£ [JH is printed in all the revisions for "jg^ [JH, 'the World- 
honoured one,' which has often occurred. On the whole, while I accept this 
paragraph as Fd-hien's own, I do it with some hesitation. That the following 
and concluding paragraph is from another hand, there can be no doubt. And it 
is as different as possible in style from the simple and straightforward narrative of 
Fi-hien. 

■ There is an error of date here, for which it is diflScult to account The 
year Keah-yin was a.d. 414 ; but that was the tenth year of the period E-he, and 
not the twelfth, the cyclical designation of which was Ping-shin. According to 
the preceding paragraph, Fi-hien's travels had occupied him fifteen years, so 
that counting from a.d. 399, the year Ke-hde, as that in which he set out, the year 
of his getting to Ts'ing-chow would have been Kwei-chow, the ninth year of the 



V ENVOI, T17 

(Eastern) Tsin dynasty, the year-star being in Virgo-Libra, in the 
summer, at the close of the period of retreat, that I met the devotee F4- 
hien. On his arrival I lodged him with myself in the winter study ^ 
and there, in our meetings for conversation, I asked him again and 
again about his travels. The man was modest and complaisant, and 
answered readily according to the truth. I thereupon advised him to 
enter into details where he had at first only given a summary, and he 
proceeded to relate all things in order from the beginning to the end. 
He said himself, * When I look back on what I have gone through, my 
heart is involuntarily moved, and the perspiration flows forth. That I 
encountered danger and trod the most perilous places, without thinking 
of or sparing myself, was because I had a definite aim, and thought of 
nothing but to do my best in my simplicity and straightforwardness. 
Thus it was that I exposed my life where death seemed inevitable, 
if I might accomplish but a ten-thousandth part of what I hoped.' These 
words affected me in turn, and I thought : — * This man is one of those 
who have seldom been seen from ancient times to the present. Since the 
Great Doctrine flowed on to the East there has been no one to be com- 
pared with Hien in his forgetfulness of self and search for the Law. 
Henceforth I know that the influence of sincerity finds no obstacle, how- 



period E-he; and we might join on *This year Keah-yin' to that paragraph, 
as the date at which the narrative was written out for the bamboo-tablets and the 
silk, and then begins the Envoy, 'In the twelfth year of E-he/ This would 
remove the error as it stands at present, but unfortunately there is a particle at 
the end of the second date (^), which seems to tie the twelfth year of E-he to 
Keah-yin, as another designation of it. The * year-star' is the planet Jupiter, the 
revolution of which, in twelve years, constitutes * a great year/ Whether it would 
be possible to fix exactly by mathematical calculation in what year Jupiter was in 
the Chinese zodiacal sign embracing part of both Virgo and Scorpio, and thereby 
help to solve the difficulty of the passage, I do not know, and in the meantime 
must leave that difficulty as I have found it 

* We do not know who the writer of the Envoy was. * The winter study or 
library ' would be the name of the apartment in his monastery or house, where he 
sat and talked with Fi-hien. 



1 18 THE TRA VELS OF FA^HIEN. 

ever great, which it does not overcome, and that force of will does 
not fail to accomplish whatever service it undertakes. Does not the 
accomplishing of such service arise from forgetting (and disregarding) 
what is (generally) considered as important, and attaching importance to 
what is (generally) forgotten ? * 



INDEX. 



A-e (Asita, Tfishi), page 65. 

A-le, 54. 

Abhayagiri monastery, loa, 105, 106, 
107. Hall of Buddha in, and statue 
of jade, 102, 103. 

Abhidharma, 10 et al. 

Ajita^atru (king), 76, 81, 82, 85. 

Alms-bowl of Buddha, 34, 35, 109, no. 

Ambapdli, 72. 

Andgdmin, 57, 86. 

Ananda, 33, 44, 45, 72, 74, 83; death 
of, in Samddhi, 75-77. 

Ahgulimdlya, 56. 

Anna (mount), 109. 

Anuruddha, 48. 

Arhan, the, or Arhat (in Chinese Lo-han), 
24, 40, 57, 71, 75, 86. Cremation of 
an Arhat, 107, 108. 

Arya, 57. 

Asankhyeya-kalpa, 105. 

A^oka, 31, 50; his spirit-built palace, 
and halls, 77; his brother, 77; his 
great tope and inscription, 80 ; his 
vihira and pillar, 50, 51 ; his city 
and pillar of Ne-le, 80; wished to 
build 84,000 topes, 69; legend of his 
naraka, 90-92. 

Bhikshu, 13, 29, 75, 83, 86, 91, 92, 113. 

Suicide of, 86. Bhikshunt, 45. 
Bimbisdra (king), 81, 82. 
Bo tree, the, in Ceylon, 103, 104. In 

Gayd, 88. Both are called in mistake 

by Fa-hien the patra tree. 



Bodhisattva, 19. Legends of Buddha, 
when Bodhisattva, 30, 31, 32, 38, 73, 
74, 105. Maitreya Bodhisattva, 25. 

Books of Discipline, the. See Vinaya, 

Brahma (king), the first person of the 
Brahmanical Trimurti, 49, 89. 

Brahmans, 47, 55, 60, 61. The Brah- 
man Rddha-sdmi, 78. 

Buddha, incarnation of the, 65 ; inci- 
dents of his early life, 65, 66 ; where 
he renounced the world, 70 ; where 
he died, 70 ; where he endured austeri- 
ties, 87 ; legends of that time, 87, 88. 
His attainment of the Buddhaship, 
89 ; first labours afterwards, 89. In 
Ceylon, loi ; his wonderful stride and 
footprint, 102. Buddha's preaching, 
54, 66. 

Buddhism, Fi-hien's name for, 30. 

Buddhists, different estimates of the 
number of, 5-8. 

Central India, or the Middle Kingdom, 
28. Condition and customs of, 42, 

43- 
Chakravartti king, 49, 90. 
Champd, 100, Topes and monasteries 

in, 100. 
Chafichamana, 60. 
Chandaka, 70. 
Chanddlas, 43. 
Ch'ang-gan, 9, 10, 115. 
Chang K'een, 27. 
Chang-yih, 11. 



120 



THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 



Charcoal lope, the, 70. 

Che-yen (pilgrim), 11, 16. 

China, or the land of Han, 13, 24, 58, 

100, 109, 113. 
Council in ^rataparna cavern, 85; of 

Vaisdli, 75. 

Dakshina, 96-98. 

Dina and ddnapati, 11, 52. 

Danta-kdshtha, legend of Buddha's, 54, 

55. 
Desert of Gobi, 12. 
Deva, or Brahmanic god, 19, 50, 79. 
Devadatta, 60, 86 ; followers of, 62. 
Devilaya, ' The Shadow Covered,' 60, 6 1 . 
Devaloka, 25. 
Dharma, the Law, one of the constituents 

of Buddhism, 28 et al. 
Dharma-gupta, 106, 107. 
Dipdhkara Buddha, 38. 
Discourse or sermon of a devotee in 

Ceylon, no. 
Dragons or ndgas, 29, 67, loi ; the 

dragon of the Rdma tope, 69 ; the 

white-eared dragon, 52 ; Eldpattra, 96. 

E-he (period), 116. 

Endowments of the monkish communi- 
ties, and offerings to them, 22, 23, 43, 
44, 108, 109. 

Fd-hien. His surname, and notices of 
his early life, 1,2; lived to the age of 
eighty-eight, 2, 3. Genuineness of 
his narrative, 3, 4. Different recen- 
sions of it, and especially the Corean 
text appended to this volume, 4. 
Stages of his travels: — Ch*ang-gan, 
10; Lung, 10; kingdom of K'een- 
kwei, 10; that of Now-t'an, 10; 
Chang-}nh, 1 1 ; Tun-hwang, 1 1 ; 



desert of Gobi, 12 ; Shen-shen, 12 ; 
Woo-e, 14; Yu-teen, 16; Tsze-hoh, 
ai; Yu-hwuy, 21; K'eeh-ch% 22; 
T'o-leih, 24 ; crosses the Indus, 26 ; 
Woo-chang, or Udyina, 28 ; Soo-ho- 
to, or Swastene, 29 ; Gandhira, 31 ; 
Takshasild, 32 ; Punishapura, or 
Peshiwur, 33; He-lo, or Hidda, in 
Nagdra, 36 ; Nagira, 38-40 ; Little 
Snowy mountains, 40; Lo-e, 41; 
Poh-nd, 41 ; recrosses the Indus, 41 ; 
Pe-t'oo, or Bhida, 41 ; Mathuri, or 
Muttra, 42; Sahkd^ya, 47; Kanyft- 
kubja, or Canouge, 53; A-le, 54; 
Shd-che, 54 ; Srdvastf in Koiala, 55 ; 
Too-wei, 63 ; Na-pei-keS, 64 ; Ka- 
pilavastu, 64; Rdma, 68; Ku^anagara, 
70 ; Vai^lt, 72 ; confluence of the 
five rivers, 75 ; Pdtaliputtra, or Patna, 
77 ; Rijagriha, 80; Nila, 81 ; New 
Rdjagriha, 81 ; Gridhra-kOta hiU, 83 ; 
^rataparna cave, 85 ; Gayd, 87 ; 
mount Gurupada, 92; V&rdnast, or 
Bendres, 93 ; Kdit, 94 ; Kau^dmbt, 
96 ; Patna, 98 ; Champd, 100 ; 
Tamaliptt, 100 ; Singhala, or Ceylon, 
10 1 ; Java, 113; Shantung, in China, 
114 ; the Capital, 115. 

First image made of Buddha, 57. 

Foo Kung-sun, 15. 

Four great topes in North India, 32 ; in 
Central India, 90. 

Four places of regular occurrence in the 
history of all Buddhas, 68. 

Four spiritual truths, and four classes of 
disciples, 57. 

Gandhdra, 31, 33, 109. 
Ganges, 54, 93, 100. 
Gayd, 87-90. 



INDEX. 



121 



Gomati monastery, 17. 

GosJrsha Chandana wood, 39, 57. 

Gridhra-kiita hill, 80, 82. Legends 

connected with, 83. Fd-hien spends 

a night on, 83. 
Grove of the Getting of Eyes, 58, 59. 
Gurupada (mount), 92. 

Habits of the Khoteners, 16, 17. 

Hall of Buddha, 20, 102. 

Han, the land of. See China. 

He-lo, 36. 

Htnaydna, 14, 15, 23, 41, et al. 

Ho-shang, name of, 58. 

Hw^ing-che (period), 9. 

Hwuy-keen (pilgrim), 11, 15. 

Hwuy-king (pilgrim), 9, 18, 22, 29, 36. 

Death of, 40, 41. 
Hwuy-tah (pilgrim), 18, 29, 36. 
Hwuy-wei (pilgrim), 10, 15. 
Hwuy-ying (pilgrim), 10. Death of, 36. 

India, 10, 14. (North), 24, 28, 29. 
(Central), 28, 42. (South), 47. 

Indus, the, 26. Crossing it, 26 ; re- 
crossing it, 41. 

Jambudvipa, 34, 48, 80. 

Jdtaka stories, 30, 31, 32, 73r74> et al. 

Jetavana vihdra, 56 ; burning of the, 
57. Sympathy of the monks at, with 
the pilgrims, 58. Park of the, 59. 

Jivaka, 82. 

Kanishka (king), 33 ; and his tope, 34, 
Kanydkubja, or Canouge, 53, 54. 
Kan Ying, 27. 
Kdo-ch*ang, 15. 
Kapilavastu, 64-68. 

Karanda Bamboo garden (Karanda 
Venuvana), 84. 



Kdst, 94. 

Kaiyapa brothers and their disciples, 89. 

Ka^yapa Buddha's entire skeleton, 93. 

Kaundinya and his companions, 94, 95. 

Kausdmbf, 96. 

Keah-yin (year), 116. 

K'eeh-ch'd, 18, 22. 

K'een-kwei, 10. 

Ke-hde (year), 9. 

Kharachar, 109. 

Khoten, 16-20, 109. 

King Prasenajit, 55. 

King's New monastery, 1 9, 

Kophene, 21. 

Ko^a, 55. 

Kwang-chow, 114. 

Kwan-she-yin, 46, 112, 113. 

Le E (prefect), 115, 

Le Hdo, 12. 

Legends of Buddha in North India, 29, 

30> 39; as Bodhisattva, 31. Of his 

danta-kdshtha, 54, 55. 
Legends of Taksha^ild, 32. 
Legends of topes and monastery, 53, 73. 
Lichchhavis, 71, 72, 76. 
Little Snowy mountains, 40. 
Lo-e, 41. 
Lumbint (garden), 67. Birth of Buddha 

in, 67. 
Lung, 10. 

Madhyamaydna, 14. 
Mahdka^yapa, 45, 85. 
Mahd-maudgalydyana (Mugalan), 44, 

48, 82. 
Mahi-prajdpatt, 55, 66, 
MahdySna, 14, 16, 21, 41, et aL 
Maitreya Bodhisattva, 25; statue of, 35, 

28, 109. 



122 



THE TRA VELS OF FA- HI EN. 



Mallju^rt, 46, 79 (a Brahman). 
Mira, king, 74 ; Pi^una, 83 ; 88. 
Mathurd, or Muttra, 42. 
Merchants (five hundred), 89. 
Monasteries, or Sahghirdmas,i 7,28, et al. 
Monastery (Gomati), 17. 
Monastery of the Great Heap, 52. 
Monastery (Pigeon), 96-98. 
Monkish customs, 44-47. 
Monkish food out of the ordinary hours, 

44. 
Monks (4000 in Shen-shen), 13 ; (4000 

in Woo-e), 15 ; (several myriads in 

Khoten), 15. Influence of the, 42. 

Quinquennial assembly of, 22, 23. 
Mother of Buddha (Mah&-mdy&), 48, 

56, 65. 
Muchilinda (dragon), 89. 

N^gara, 29, 36. 

Ndla, 81. 

Nanda, 65. 

Naraka, 90. 

Ne-le city and pillar, 80. 

New R^jagriha, 81. 

Ninety-six sorts of erroneous views, 62. 

Nirgrantha, the, 82. 

Nirvdna, 14, 27* 33» et al. 
Now-t'an, 10. 

Onion mountains, 20, 21, 23, 24. 

Pdo-yun (pilgrim), 11, 15, 36. 

Pdramitis, the, 46 ; Prajfid-piraroitS, 46. 

Pari-nirvdna, 33, 57, 73. 

Park of * The rishi's Deer-wild,' 94. 

Pdtaliputtra,or Patna,77; monasteries of, 
78, 79 ; hospitals and dispensaries of, 
79, 97-99. Manuscripts copied there, 
98-99 ; the Mahdsdnghika rules, Sar- 
vdstivdddh rules, Saipyukt&bhidharma- 



hridaya-(^tra), Sfitra of 2500 gdthas, 
the Parinirv^-vaipulya Si^tra, Mahfi- 
8&nghikSh Abhidhanna, 99. 

Pe-t*oo, or Bhida, 41. 

Fing (king of Chow dynasty), 27. 

Plain (Central and South India), 47. 

Poh-nd, 41. 

Poonah, or Jumna river, 42. 

Prasenajit. See King 

Pratyeka Buddhas, 40, 53, 74. 

Procession of images at Khoten, 16-19; 
at Patna, 79; in Ceylon, 106, 107. 

Purushapura, or Pesh&wur, 33. 

Quinquennial assembly of monks, 2 a. 

Rdhula, 46. 

Rdjagriha (new and old) legends and 
incidents, 80-86. 

Rdma and its tope, 68, 69. 

Relics of Buddha : — spittoon, 23 ; alms- 
bowl, 23, 34, 35, 89, 109 ; tooth, 23, 
io5> 107 ; skull-bone, 36, 37 ; pewter 
staff, 39; Sangh&li, or Sanghft^, 39; 
hair and nails, 39 et al. ; shadow, 39, 88. 

Retreat (the simimer), 10, 11, 22, 39, 
113, 117, et al. 

^akra, 30, 34, 49, 50, 60, 80, 81. 

Sdma, 106. 

Samddhi, 76. 

Sahghdli. See Relics. 

Sing-king (pilgrim), 11, 36. 

Sing-shdo (pilgrim), 11, 21. 

Sahld^ya, 47. 

^driputtra, 44, 81, 82. 

Shd-che, 54. 

Shadow of Buddha. See Relics. 

Shay-e, 63. 

Shen-shen, 12. 

Shikshdpada, or ten commandments, 46. 



INDEX. 



123 



Singhala, or Ceylon, loo-iii. Manu- 
scripts obtained in, iii. 

^mai^am, 84. 

Snow mountains, 24. 

Soo-ho-to (Swastene), 29, 30. 

Sramana (Sraman, Sh&-m&n), 14 et al. 

Srimanera, 45, 69, 70. 

Srataparna cave, or cave of the First 
Council, 84, 85. 

lirivastf, 55, 56. Topes and legends of, 
56-61. 

Srot&pannas, 67, 86. 

Subhadra, 71. 

Sud&na, 106. 

Sudatta, 56. 

Suddhodana, 64. 

Sympathy of Indian monks with pil- 
grims, 41. 

Takshaiiild, 3a. 

Tamiliptf, 100. 

Tdo-ching (pilgrim), 9, 18, 29, 36, 99. 

Tathdgata, 63. 

Three Buddhas anterior to ^ikyamuni, 

<53, 64. 

To-leih, or Darada, 24. 

Topes, 1 7, 40, 53, et al. Buddha him- 
self assisted in building a model tope, 
39> 40. 

Trayastriip^as heaven, legend ofBuddha's 
ascent to and descent from, 48, 49. 

Treasuries of the monasteries in Ceylon, 
103; rule regarding, 104. 



Tripitaka, 10. 
Trtsharana, 46. 
Ts'in, 15, 23. 
Ts'ing-chow, 115. 
Tsze-hoh, 21. 
T*un-hwang, 11, 12. 
Tushita heaven, 25. 

UpdU, 66. 
Upasena, 82. 
Utpala bhikshunf, 49. 

Vai^akha (mother), 59. 

Vai^ait, 72. 

Vai^yas, chiefs of, 38, 47. 

Vanity of life and of the body, 54i 9i« 

Vdrdnast, or Bendres, 94. 

Vihira, 36, 37, et al. King's grant of a 

new vihira to monks in Ceylon, 108. 
Vimoksha tope, 38. 
Vinaya, or Books of Discipline, 9, 10, 

98, et al. 
Virddhaha (Vaidflrya), king, 63, 67. 

When the law of Buddha first went to 

the East, 27, 28. 
Woo-chang, or Udy&na, 28, 29. 
Woo-e, 14. 

Yang-chow, 115. 
Yang-low, 10. 
Yu-hwuy, 21. 
Yu-teen, or Rhoten, 16. 



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ra 


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» S, M Jt. » S, M ]g. ' S, M invert. 

S, M ^. ' After J[jj[, S, M insert ^ itfe. 



s, M jj^. • M ;|t;f . 




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n, 


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^ 


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n 


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lA] ^ 


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• S, M ^. » S, M !^. 'So, S, M. Text has 1^ instead of ^. ' S, M omit 



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» S, M omit. « Should be yg. ' J ^. R- * S, M omit. • S, M omit 
• S, M repeat. ^ S, M |gr. • S, M Jt- W. • Text has ^ on the left. 






+ H 



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H. Bt« 


@ 


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» S, M jHH;. » M omits. 
S, M P^. • S, M omit. 



» S, M flft. « Before ^, S, M insert ^. 

J . » S, M omit. • S, M omit. 









m *ii> M &» n» 


j£. 


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z 


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m m.n m ^. 


^. 


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m m ± ^ M 


m if t. m M 


jSi. 


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# 


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m 


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m ^ m vi ^. 


IS 


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w. n #. # Ife. 


m 


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:& ^ fn >j> ra 


^ 


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m ^ ^ ^ ^ 


m ^ ^ la ;^ 


ifc 


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^. 


p. ^. A. 


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» S, M omit. » S, M J|, « S, M 
• S, M 3(P jgD. ^ S, M omit. 




* S, M omit 



^ M fls. R« 







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^ 1% lit ^. j&. 


^ 


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ii - in >ti. 


m m m % ^ 


a. 


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m. # «E =t 


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m 


^ 


^ ^ + 


n «. t; ^ 


^ B, It. ;^ Jgg 


it 


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lit -/gi. M. 


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M 


M 


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tift ja g ^. 


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tb. t; ik^. ^ 


^e. ^£ * ^ ^ 


« 


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15 


M. ^. ^ 


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^ m m* ^ m. 


* 


._* 


n % ^ 


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T ^1 M ^f >S 


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m m ^ I& m 


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^ 


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|wl. 


^ 


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)^ 


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= + i: ^ 4 


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m #. M. M ^ 


1^ 


a. 


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rtl ^ ^ ;^. ^ 


^. 


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"^ ^ m m 


i. ft ^ i ^, 


^C^ 


^ 


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iM ^ M ^> 



» S, M H. *^\. * S, M omit. * S, M omit. 



ii-^-r. 




+ H 






Jn W ^5 ni ft Jni 


il5 It 1^ 14 


^J' ;i JS ^ 


w m m n m 


#> 13 H. -t 


% m. m WiM 


^.^ % Vi ^ 


m 5|i f? ♦ss 


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w PI ^ -H m. 


W ^ it H. 


mS ft? >ti 1^ jit 


m ^h ±. m. n 


^ 4 - i* 


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m ^ B ^ i^ 


% ^ W. li 


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A ^. ji ^ 


W i^ W M W 


m. A. IE NT ^ 


S ^ In) 7 


^ li 1% M. "t 


T ^ *. Jl p. 


B9o ft ff € 


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H ^ i m X 


1^ W JWo "OTi 


^ ^ ^ m n 


M. fe 1* jj** IS 


^' Mo 0'^"'<a 


m ^ u m ^ 


m m.m M n 


Ol fl w ^ 


m ^.m n. ^. 


m ^ ^ m ^ 


19 ^ « M 


™i JPi "ft W ^ 


M ^ d^ J^, :k 


^, ib i!fi iU^ 


igt #. it ^ ^ 


^ :S. - ffl *, 


= :=. ib, M 


^ ^.m -tk m 


^o *i P^ <i oj 


& =^ ^ ^>fr 


a vaj$ [ij m 


en Ul M ^. ib 


#. M. - ffii 


15. !«i. M ib # 


lit ^ m. ^ It 


^ ^ e B. 


jf^ t ^ AiSr # 


at ^ A H F|?. 


- p m ^ 


^ :i ^.m^ 


+ m i^ ^* ^ 


^ m ^.n 


flii ^ ^ W ^ 


#. il H ^. - 


^. ^ 5t ^ 


#. J* Oi K >fif 


^ m ^ ^ ^ 


;S i5. ®. j^ 


^ £ i^ li ^ 


A ^ ± m ^. 


fl /• ^ Bir 


1^ ^, ^ ^. IP 


ij m m.^tt ^ 


jist H H H 


Hk ^ ni ^ ^ 


^ M ^ Sw) ^ 


M ^ 1% t 


^^m m.n m 


> s All. « s, M It. 


» After jtb, S, M insert ^. * S,U ^. 




ii+r. 






A+- 



m^^^mnmmmm.mmm^ 


* 


i^^m^.^'f'm.m\^n^^m 


^. 


m-m^^. i^nm^-^"^. m 


H 


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— ' 


:n %^ ^.m ^ m m f^ ^.n.^ n 


>j> 


mmm.^nkm'^f^^m^^^ 


E 


^. mmm^^s^A-^^m^m 


>fcr 


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Uj. 


^tM. ^E^M. ^NTHfji^irM. 


Uj 


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Before >f^, S, M insert i^. 



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» S, M omit. « S, M omit. » S, M omit. * So, but should be yj. • J ^. R. 
• S, M omit. ' S, M 1^. ' S ^. •In text, with ;|c at the side. 










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" Another form of this in text. " S, M :f^. " S, M jff . 
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« S.M3J^. 

" S, M omit. 



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• S, M 'g,. ' S, M ;^. • S, M, The Corean text is a vulgar form of tliis. 

• S tH; M H. •• S. M i^. " After ^, S. M insert ^fc. 

C 2 






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